human rights and women s rights a brief history and overview l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Human Rights and Women’s Rights: A Brief History and Overview PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Human Rights and Women’s Rights: A Brief History and Overview

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 57

Human Rights and Women’s Rights: A Brief History and Overview - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 308 Views
  • Uploaded on

Human Rights and Women’s Rights: A Brief History and Overview. Martin Donohoe. History of Human Rights. Ancient Greeks, Romans, etc. Era of Kings and Queens Life short, brutal Identification: community vs. individuals Slavery Religious beliefs: Judgmental vs. benevolent divinity.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Human Rights and Women’s Rights: A Brief History and Overview' - lavi


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
history of human rights
History of Human Rights
  • Ancient Greeks, Romans, etc.
  • Era of Kings and Queens
  • Life short, brutal
  • Identification: community vs. individuals
  • Slavery
  • Religious beliefs: Judgmental vs. benevolent divinity
history of human rights3
History of Human Rights
  • Enlightenment’s scientific rationalism → Humanism
  • Democratization of reading
  • Developments in relief of suffering:
    • Pain relief (aspirin, narcotics, morphine - isolated 1806)
    • Nitrous oxide (1773), ether anesthesia (1846)
  • Abolitionist movement
declaration of independence
Declaration of Independence

“All men are created equal, that they are endowed by their creator with certain unalienable Rights, that these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness”

declarations
Declarations
  • French Assembly’s Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen of 1789
    • Marquis de Lafayette
    • Rights are “self evident” and “unalienable”
declarations6
Declarations
  • Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen of 1791
    • Olympe de Gouges (French playwright, feminist, and anti-slavery activist)
    • “Woman is born free and lives equal to Man in her rights”
    • De Gouges executed
u s constitution
U.S. Constitution
  • Ratified 1789
  • Terms “persons,” “people,” and “electors” used, allowing interpretation of those beings as men and women
timeline of women s rights in the u s http www legacy98 org timeline html
Timeline of Women’s Rights in the U.S.(http://www.legacy98.org/timeline.html)
  • 1701 First sexually integrated jury hears cases in Albany, New York
  • 1769 American colonies base their laws on the English common law
    • summarized in the Blackstone Commentaries: “By marriage, the husband and wife are one person in the law? The very being and legal existence of the woman is suspended during the marriage, or at least is incorporated into that of her husband under whose wing  and protection she performs everything.”
timeline of women s rights in the u s
Timeline of Women’s Rights in the U.S.
  • 1777 All states pass laws which take away women’s right to vote
  • 1839 Mississippi grants women the right to hold property in their own name, with their husbands’ permission
timeline of women s rights in the u s10
Timeline of Women’s Rights in the U.S.
  • 1848 Declaration of Sentiments, Seneca Falls: Plea for the end of discrimination against women in all spheres of society, including the right to vote
    • 300 men and women sign
  • 1855 In Missouri v. Celia, a Slave, a Black woman is declared to be property without a right to defend herself against a master's act of rape
timeline of women s rights in the u s11
Timeline of Women’s Rights in the U.S.
  • 1866 14th Amendment passed by Congress (ratified 1868)
    • Right to equal representation under the law
    • The first time “citizens” and “voters” are defined as “male” in the Constitution.
  • 1869 Susan B Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton form National Woman Suffrage Association
timeline of women s rights in the u s12
Timeline of Women’s Rights in the U.S.
  • 1869 Wyoming territory passes first women’s suffrage law
  • 1870 Women permitted to serve on Wyoming juries
  • 1870 15th Amendment ratified: “The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.”
    • women not specifically excluded
comstock law 1873 1936
Comstock Law: 1873-1936
  • Whoever shall offer to sell, loan, give away, exhibit, publish, or possess
    • an obscene book, pamphlet, advert-isement, print, picture, or drawing or
    • any article for the prevention of conception, or for causing abortion,
  • or shall advertise the same for sale,
  • or shall write or print any circular, book, or pamphlet stating how such articles can be obtained,
  • shall be imprisoned at hard labor for not less than six months nor more than five years for each offense…

Slide Courtesy Dr Steven Miles

Anthony Comstock

Postal Inspector

Politician

timeline of women s rights in the u s14
Timeline of Women’s Rights in the U.S.
  • 1873 Bradwell v. Illinois: U.S. Supreme Court rules that a state has the right to exclude a married woman from practicing law
  • 1875 Minor v Happersett: U.S. Supreme Court declares that a state can prohibit a woman from voting. The court declares women as “persons,” but holds that they constitute a “special category of non-voting citizens.”
timeline of women s rights in the u s15
Timeline of Women’s Rights in the U.S.
  • 1879 Through special Congressional legislation, Belva Lockwood becomes first woman admitted to try a case before the Supreme Court
  • 1893 Colorado first state to allow women right to vote
  • 1900 By now, every state has passed legislation modeled after New York’s Married Women’s Property Act (1848), granting married women some control over their property and earnings
timeline of women s rights in the u s16
Timeline of Women’s Rights in the U.S.
  • 1908 Muller v State of Oregon: Supreme Court upholds Oregon’s 10-hour workday for women
    • Legislation implies that women are physically weak
  • 1916 Margaret Sanger tests the validity of New York’s anti-contraception law by establishing a clinic in Brooklyn
  • 1918 New York v. Sanger, U.S. Court of Appeals: Sanger wins her suit to allow doctors to advise married patients about birth control for health purposes
timeline of women s rights in the u s17
Timeline of Women’s Rights in the U.S.
  • 1919 Federal Woman Suffrage Amendment, originally written by Susan B Anthony and introduced in Congress in 1878, passes House and Senate and is sent to states for ratification
  • 1920 Nineteenth Amendment ratified: “The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.”
timeline of women s rights in the u s18
Timeline of Women’s Rights in the U.S.
  • 1923 National Woman’s Party proposes Constitutional amendment: “Men and women shall have equal rights throughout the United States and in every place subject to its jurisdiction.”
  • 1924 Radice v. New York – State court upholds law forbidding waitresses from working night shift but makes exception for entertainers and ladies' room attendants
timeline of women s rights in the u s19
Timeline of Women’s Rights in the U.S.
  • 1925 American Indian suffrage granted by act of Congress
  • 1932 National Recovery Act forbids more than one family member from holding a government job, resulting in many women losing their jobs
  • 1936 Federal law prohibiting dissemination of contraceptive information through the mail is modified and birth control no longer classified as obscene
timeline of women s rights in the u s20
Timeline of Women’s Rights in the U.S.
  • 1938 The Fair Labor Standards Act establishes minimum wage without regard to sex
  • 1947 Fay v. New York: U.S. Supreme Court says women are equally qualified with men to serve on juries but are granted an exemption and may serve or not as they choose
  • 1960 FDA approves birth control pills
timeline of women s rights in the u s21
Timeline of Women’s Rights in the U.S.
  • 1961 Hoyt v. Florida: U.S. Supreme Court upholds rules adopted by the state of Florida that make it far less likely for women than men to be called for jury service on grounds that a “woman is still regarded as the center of home and family life.”
  • 1963 Equal Pay Act passed by Congress, promising equitable wages for the same work, regardless of the race, color, religion, national origin or sex of the worker
timeline of women s rights in the u s22
Timeline of Women’s Rights in the U.S.
  • 1964 Title VII of the Civil Rights Act passes including a prohibition against employment discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, or sex.
  • 1965 Weeks v. Southern Bell: ruling against restrictive labor laws and company regulations re hours and conditions of women's work; opens many previously male-only jobs to women
timeline of women s rights in the u s23
Timeline of Women’s Rights in the U.S.
  • 1965 Griswold v Connecticut - Supreme Court overturns one of the last state laws prohibiting the prescription or use of contraceptives by married couples
  • 1966 Founding of National Organization of Women
timeline of women s rights in the u s24
Timeline of Women’s Rights in the U.S.
  • 1967 Loving v State of VA – Supreme Court voids laws barring inter-racial marriage
  • 1968 Executive Order 11246 prohibits sex discrimination by government contractors and requires affirmative action plans for hiring women
timeline of women s rights in the u s25
Timeline of Women’s Rights in the U.S.
  • 1969 Bowe v. Colgate-Palmolive Company - Seventh Circuit Court of Appeals rules that women meeting the physical requirements can work in many jobs that had been for men only
  • 1969 California adopts the nation’s first “no fault” divorce law, allowing divorce by mutual consent; other laws passed regarding equal division of common property
timeline of women s rights in the u s26
Timeline of Women’s Rights in the U.S.
  • 1971 Phillips v. Martin Marietta Corporation: U.S. Supreme Court outlaws practice of private employers refusing to hire women with pre-school children.
  • 1971 Reed v. Reed: U.S. Supreme Court holds unconstitutional an Idaho law establishing automatic preference for males as administrators of wills
timeline of women s rights in the u s27
Timeline of Women’s Rights in the U.S.
  • 1972 Title IX of the Education Amendments prohibits sex discrimination in all aspects of education programs that receive federal support
  • 1972 Eisenstadt v. Baird: Supreme Court rules that the right to privacy encompasses an unmarried person's right to use contraceptives.
timeline of women s rights in the u s28
Timeline of Women’s Rights in the U.S.
  • 1972 Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) passed by Congress and sent to states for ratification
    • 1982 Ratification deadline passes (35/38 needed states ratify)
  • 1973 Pittsburgh Press v. Pittsburgh Commission on Human Relations: U.S. Supreme Court bans sex-segregated “help wanted” advertising as a violation of Title VII
timeline of women s rights in the u s29
Timeline of Women’s Rights in the U.S.
  • 1973 Roe v. Wade: U.S. Supreme Court declares that the Constitution protects women’s right to terminate an early pregnancy, thus making abortion legal in the U.S.
  • 1974 Housing discrimination on the basis of sex and credit discrimination against women are outlawed by Congress.
timeline of women s rights in the u s30
Timeline of Women’s Rights in the U.S.
  • 1974 Cleveland Board of Education v. LaFleur: Court determines it is illegal to force pregnant women to take maternity leave on the assumption they are incapable of working in their physical condition
  • 1975 Taylor v. Louisiana: U.S. Supreme Court denies states the right to exclude women from juries
  • 1976 First marital rape law passed in Nebraska
timeline of women s rights in the u s31
Timeline of Women’s Rights in the U.S.
  • 1976 General Elec. Co v. Gilbert: Supreme Court upholds women’s right to unemployment benefits during the last three months of pregnancy
  • 1976 Craig v. Boren: Supreme Court declares unconstitutional a state law permitting 18 to 20-year-old females to drink beer while denying the rights to men of the same age
timeline of women s rights in the u s32
Timeline of Women’s Rights in the U.S.
  • 1978 Pregnancy Discrimination Act bans employment discrimination against pregnant women
  • 1981 Supreme Court rules that excluding women from the draft is constitutional
  • 1981 Kirchberg v. Feenstra: Supreme Court overturns state laws designating a husband “head and master” with unilateral control of property owned jointly with his wife
timeline of women s rights in the u s33
Timeline of Women’s Rights in the U.S.
  • 1984 Roberts v. U.S. Jaycees: Supreme Court forbids sex discrimination in membership policies of organizations, opening many previously all-male organizations to women.
  • 1984 Mississippi belatedly ratifies the 19th Amendment, granting women the vote
  • 1986 Meritor Savings Bank v. Vinson: Supreme Court holds that a hostile or abusive work environment can prove discrimination based on sex
    • Other criterion for sex discrimination: quid pro quo
timeline of women s rights in the u s34
Timeline of Women’s Rights in the U.S.
  • 1987 Johnson v. Santa Clara County: Supreme Court rules that it is permissible to take sex and race into account in employment decisions even where there is no proven history of discrimination but when evidence of a manifest imbalance exists in the number of women or minorities holding the position in question
  • 1992 Planned Parenthood vs. Casey: Supreme Court upholds woman’s right to abortion under Roe v. Wade
timeline of women s rights in the u s35
Timeline of Women’s Rights in the U.S.
  • 1993 Harris v. Forklift Systems: Supreme Court rules that victim does not need to show that she suffered physical or serious psychological injury as a result of sexual harassment
  • 1993 Family and Medical Leave Act goes into effect
timeline of women s rights in the u s36
Timeline of Women’s Rights in the U.S.
  • 1994 Congress adopts Gender Equity in Education Act to train teachers in gender equity, promote math and science learning by girls, counsel pregnant teens, and prevent sexual harassment
  • 1994 Violence Against Women Act funds services for victims of rape and domestic violence, allows women to seek civil rights remedies for gender-related crimes, and provides training to increase police and court officials’ sensitivity and a national 24-hour hotline for battered women
timeline of women s rights in the u s37
Timeline of Women’s Rights in the U.S.
  • 1996 United States v. Virginia: Supreme Court affirms that the male-only admissions policy of the state-supported Virginia Military Institute violates the Fourteenth Amendment
  • 1997 Elaborating on Title IX, Supreme Court rules that college athletics programs must actively involve roughly equal numbers of men and women to qualify for federal support
timeline of women s rights in the u s38
Timeline of Women’s Rights in the U.S.
  • 1998 Burlington Industries, Inc. v. Ellerth, and Faragher v. City of Boca Raton: Supreme Court rules that employers are liable for sexual harassment even when a supervisor’s threats are not carried out. However, the employer can defend itself by showing that it took steps to prevent or promptly correct any sexually harassing behavior and the employee did not take advantage of available opportunities to stop the behavior or complain of the behavior
timeline of women s rights in the u s39
Timeline of Women’s Rights in the U.S.
  • 2000 United States v. Morrison: Supreme Court invalidates those portions of the Violence Against Women Act permitting victims of rape, domestic violence, etc. to sue their attackers in federal court
universal declaration of human rights
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
  • Emphasis on human dignity and worth, freedom, and universality
  • Adopted 1948
  • Not universally followed
universal declaration of human rights41
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
  • Rights to life, liberty, and security
  • Prohibits slavery and torture
  • Prohibits discrimination, arbitrary arrest/detention/exile
  • Guarantees fair, public trial by impartial tribunal
  • Innocent until proven guilty
universal declaration of human rights42
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
  • Guarantees protections against interference with family, home, and correspondence
  • Right to freedom of movement and residence
  • Right to nationality, right to seek asylum
  • Equal rights at marriage, within families, and at dissolution of marriage
universal declaration of human rights43
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
  • Right to own property
  • Right to freedom of thought, conscience, and religion
  • Right to freedom of expression and peaceful assembly and association
  • Right to take part in government
  • Right to social security
universal declaration of human rights44
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
  • Right to work, free choice of employment, just and favorable conditions of employment, and protection against unemployment
  • Right to form and join trade unions
  • Right to rest and leisure
universal declaration of human rights45
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
  • Right to adequate standard of living, including food, clothing, housing, medical care, and social services
  • Right to education
    • Free and compulsory in elementary stages
  • Right to participate in cultural life of community
  • Protects scientific, literary, and artistic endeavors
the present
The Present
  • International Agreements
  • Wars
  • Torture
  • Extraordinary rendition
  • Status of Women
the us rogue nation
The US: Rogue Nation
  • History: Native Americans, slavery, current excesses, disparities and injustices
  • Co-opting Nazi and Japanese WWII scientists
  • Minimum 277 troop deployments by the US in its 225+ year history
the us rogue nation48
The US: Rogue Nation
  • Since the end of WWII, the US has bombed:
    • China, Korea, Indonesia, Cuba, Guatemala, Congo, Peru, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Nicaragua, El Salvador, Grenada, Libya, Panama, Afghanistan, Sudan, Yugoslavia, and Iraq
the us rogue nation49
The US: Rogue Nation
  • Conservative estimate = 8 million killed
  • US invasions/bombings often largely at behest of corporate interests
  • The US spends vastly more on war and the preparation for war than on peace
  • The US maintains military bases in 69 “sovereign” nations around the world
the us rogue nation50
The US: Rogue Nation
  • Continued funding of the Western Hemisphere Institute for Security Cooperation
    • Formerly the School of the Americas
    • Over 60,000 graduates, including many of the worst human rights abusers in Latin America (e.g., Manuel Noriega, Omar Torrijos, and the assassins of Archbishop Oscar Romero)
    • School of the Americas Watch, arrests
international non cooperation isolationism
International Non-Cooperation/Isolationism
  • Failure to sign or approve:
    • Kyoto Protocol on Climate Change
    • International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights
    • Convention on the Prohibition of Anti-Personnel Land Mines
    • Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
international non cooperation isolationism52
International Non-Cooperation/Isolationism
  • Failure to sign or approve:
    • Convention on the Rights of the Child
    • Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women
    • Convention for the Suppression of Traffic in Persons
international non cooperation isolationism53
International Non-Cooperation/Isolationism
  • Failure to sign or approve:
    • Protocol 1, Article 55 of the Geneva Conventions, which bans methods or means of warfare which are intended, or may be expected, to cause widespread, long-term and severe damage to the natural environment
international non cooperation isolationism54
International Non-Cooperation/Isolationism
  • Failure to sign or approve
    • The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants
    • The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes
    • The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety (re GM foods)
the us rogue nation55
The US: Rogue Nation
  • Death Penalty:
    • US executes more of its citizens than any other country
    • US is the only country to execute both juveniles and the mentally ill
  • Failure to follow World Court Decisions
  • Largest debtor to the UN (only 40% of dues paid)
the future
The Future

Education and Activism

contact information
Contact Information

Public Health and Social Justice Website

http://www.phsj.org

martindonohoe@phsj.org