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Violence Against Women
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Violence Against Women

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  1. Violence Against Women Martin Donohoe, M.D., F.A.C.P.

  2. Violence Against WomenOverview • Definitions • Epidemiology • Sexual Assault/Rape • Sequelae of Domestic Violence

  3. Violence Against WomenOverview • Recognition and Management • The Developing World • human rights abuses • female genital mutilation

  4. Objectives • Understand common forms of violence against women • Learn to recognize and manage violence against women • Exposure to international issues related to violence against women

  5. Definitions of Violence Against Women Individual: Any act of verbal or physical force, coercion, or life-threatening deprivation that causes physical or psychological harm, humiliation, or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, or that perpetuates female subordination

  6. Individual Violence Against Women(examples) • partner abuse • sexual assault/marital rape • forced prostitution • forced noncompliance with contraception • female genital mutilation • slavery • unwanted sexting

  7. Definitions of Violence Against Women Societal: Structural forms of discrimination or deprivation that affect women as a class

  8. Societal Violence Against Women(examples) • poverty • impaired access to employment or education • divorce restrictions • salary inequalities • political marginalization • impaired access to reproductive health services

  9. Epidemiology of VAW • Lifetime prevalence of assault/sexual abuse • 12% of adolescent girls • 15% of college women • 20% of adult women

  10. Epidemiology of VAW • 2011 CDC study: • 36% of women and 28% of men have experienced rape, physical violence, stalking, or all 3 by their significant other in their lifetimes

  11. Epidemiology of VAW • 2011 CDC study • 18% of women have been raped; 1.4% of men • Women: 52% by partner; 41% by acquaintance • Men: 52% by acquaintance; 15% by stranger

  12. Epidemiology of VAW • 2 - 4 million women assaulted per year • Every 15 seconds a woman is beaten; every 2 minutes a woman is sexually assaulted • 5% of partner abuse is female on male • (homosexual/bisexual abuse also exists)

  13. Dating Violence in Adolescence and Young Adulthood 1/3 of 7th grade girls report “psychological dating violence,” 1/6 report “physical dating violence” (2012) One study (AJPH 2010;100:1737-1744) showed females more likely than males to be perpetrators (38% vs. 19%) Study included physical violence, but not sexual violence, and did not consider violence not resulting in injuries Males and females surveyed (under-reporting possible)

  14. Prevalence of Domestic Violence • P-care • 1/4 women abused at some point in her life • 1/7 women abused within preceding 12 months • ER • 1/4 of women seeking care (any reason) • 35% of women treated for trauma

  15. Prevalence of Domestic Violence • OB/Gyn • 1/6 women during pregnancy • Abortion Clinics • 12% • Peds • 50 - 70% of mothers of abused children

  16. Prevalence of Domestic Violence • Orthopedic fracture clinics • 1/6 women • Psych • 1/4 women who attempt suicide • 1/4 women treated for psychiatric symptoms • 55% lifetime prevalence for women with depression

  17. Abuse in Pregnancy • Incidence = 8 - 20% (lower than in non-pregnant women) • Most common sites of beating are abdomen, head and breasts • Increases risk of low birth weight/pre-term labor/delayed prenatal care • Post-partum depression • Higher risk for abuse and • Abuse increases risk of post-partum depression

  18. High Risk Occupations: Prostitutes • 80% have been physically assaulted • 80% have been threatened with a knife, gun, or other weapon • 67% have been raped • 1/67 arrested per week in U.S. • 1/33 have sex with a police officer per week in U.S.

  19. High Risk Occupations: Prostitutes High rates of physical assault and abuse by police in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia Some prostitutes overseas take furosemide to appear more thin/lose water weight Prostitute rates of PTSD similar to those of combat veterans and refugees from state-sponsored torture

  20. Prostitution in the U.S. • 0.6% of men admit to paying for sex in the last year • 17% at some point in their lives (actual percentage likely higher) • 694 “clients”/prostitute/year average

  21. Prostitution in the U.S. • 1.6% of women admitted they “had sex with a person [they] paid, or who paid [them] for sex” since age 18 • Punishment varies among johns, prostitutes, pimps • Different types of regulation exist worldwide (see prostitution paper on website)

  22. Sex Trafficking and Sex Tourism Sex tourism common in SE Asia, Eastern Europe 100,000 children are victims of commercial sexual exploitation in the US each year Many malnourished forced to take dexamethasone (to gain weight) Trafficking Victims Protection Act provides some protections

  23. High Risk Occupations: The Military • See the “Women’s Health” and “War and Peace” pages of the Public Health and Social Justice website for other slide shows and articles covering: • Violence against women in the military • War, rape and genocide

  24. High Risk GroupsRunaway and Homeless Youth • Survival sex • the exchange of sex for shelter, food, drugs or money • 28% of street youths, 10% of shelter youth (out of 1 - 2 million runaway adolescents/year) • association with violence, victimization, STDs, and pregnancy

  25. “High Risk” Perpetrators • Male college athletes • constitute 3.3% of male student body • involved in 19% of sexual assaults • Fraternities • individual and gang rapes more common

  26. Deaths from Domestic Violence • 4,000 domestic violence deaths/year • over 1/2 of women murdered in U.S. are killed by a current or former partner • U.S. has highest rate of IPV homicides among world’s 25 wealthiest countries • 1/2 to 3/4 of the 1,000 - 1,500 murder suicides per year involve domestic violence • 88% of these involve guns

  27. Victims Who Kill Their Abusers • Between 2,000 and 4,000 women imprisoned for murdering their abusers • Battered women who claim self-defense (the only legally justifiable reason for murder) in criminal trials are acquitted only 25% of the time • 63% of young men aged 11-20 serving time for homicide have killed their mother’s abuser

  28. Race/SES and Domestic Violence • Seen in all age, race, and SES brackets • May be more common in African-American, but • confounders = lower SES, fewer resources, more likely to be seen in ER or to use public shelters • May be more common in Latinos, but • confounders = as above • However, more women hold more traditional ideas regarding spousal roles...

  29. low self-esteem guilt self-blame denial traditional attitudes regarding women’s roles have children poor financial resources few job skills less education few friends history of childhood abuse Common Characteristics ofAbuse Victims

  30. Common Characteristicsof Abusers • low self-esteem • dependency • jealousy • poor communication skills • unemployed/underemployed

  31. Common Characteristicsof Abusers abuse alcohol/other drugs have witnessed or experienced abuse as children If immigrants, are more likely to have been victims of political violence abuse their own children

  32. Men with Restraining Orders • 75% have criminal record • 50% have history of violent crime • 15% violated R.O. over 6 months • 30% arraigned for a violent crime over 6 months

  33. Child Abuse • seen in 1/3 - 1/2 of families where partner abuse occurs • in one 3 month study of 146 children who witnessed partner abuse • all sons over age 14 attempted to protect their mothers • 62% were physically injured in the process

  34. Children and Partner Abuse • Children witness up to 85% of episodes of partner abuse • child abuse • Children of abuse victims show decrements in academic and emotional development and are more likely to become abusers themselves

  35. Rape • Unwanted, penetration • Oral/vaginal/anal • By penis, other body part, or object • Forcible and non-forcible • Includes rape of females by females • Reported by 33 -46% of women who are physically abused

  36. Rape • Unwanted, forced penetration (oral/vaginal/anal) • Reported by 33 -46% of women who are physically abused

  37. Rape • Annual incidence ³ 80/100,000 women • 7% of all violent crimes • Lifetime prevalence up to 25% • 1/3 Native Americans/Alaskan Natives victims of attempted rape or rape • Migrants, those in war zones and refugee camps at high risk

  38. High Risk Groups Prostitutes Gays, lesbians, bisexuals, transgendered Alcohol and drug users College students Persons under age 24

  39. Date Rape • 40% of college women report forced sexual contact, attempted rape, or completed rape • most common: ignoring victims’ protests • independent of school demographics • >25% of college males admit to using sexually coercive behaviors • 2/3 of college males report engaging in unwanted sexual intercourse • reasons: peer pressure, desire to be liked

  40. Spousal Rape • occurs in 10 - 15% of all marriage • more violent, less frequently reported then non-spousal rape • not illegal in many U.S. states/other countries

  41. Rape • 5% chance of pregnancy (est. 32,000 pregnancies/yr in US) • 25% chance of acquiring STD • GC = 6 - 12% • Chlamydia = 4 - 17% • Syphilis = 0.5 - 3%

  42. Rape 1 -2/1,000 odds of acquiring HIV from HIV+ rapist 1-2/100,000 overall risk of HIV from vaginal penetration 2-3/10,000 from anal penetration

  43. Rape and Pregnancy • Noninvasive prenatal genetic testing through amplification of fetal alleles from maternal blood very accurate for identifying father • Can be performed at 8-14 weeks gestation • vs. amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling (10-15 weeks, risks to mother and fetus) • May assist mother’s decision to carry vs. terminate pregnancy

  44. Rape • Underreported (16-38% notify law enforcement; 17-43% present for medical evaluation) • Fewer than ½ of rape cases successfully prosecuted; as few as 1% of rapists convicted

  45. Rape Large backlog of untested rape kits (over 180,000) H.R. 4114 and S.B 2736 (Justice for Survivors of Sexual Assault) bills pending in Congress

  46. Rape • Average prison time for those convicted: • rape = 1 year • armed robbery = 3 - 5 years • murder = 8 years • Chemical Castration Laws

  47. How We View Women • Montana • 2nd violation of animal abuse statute • $1,000 fine + 2 years in jail • 2nd violation spousal abuse • $500 + 6 months in jail

  48. Sexual Crimes Against Children 81,000 children sexually abused per year in US 93% committed by family member or someone known to victim Child stranger abductions very rare, despite widespread media coverage

  49. Registered Sex Offenders • 650,000 in US • Covers child molesters, possession of child pornography, solicitation of prostitution, exhibitionism and indecent exposure, voyeurism) • In certain jurisdictions also includes anal and oral sex and consensual sex between juveniles or between young adults and juvenilles • The least likely class of criminals to re-offend (3.5% recidivism rate within 3 years, recidivism rare after 5 years)

  50. The Physician’s Duties in Caring for Victims of Sexual Assaults • Medical • obtain medical history • evaluate and treat physical injuries • obtain cultures • treat any pre-existing infection NEJM 1995; 332:234-7 and NEJM 2011;365:834-41