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Lecture 1: Eye Anatomy. Liana Al-Labadi, O.D. Eye Anatomy. Eye Anatomy. The orbital bone The eye socket Formed by: Cheekbone Forehead Temple Side of nose Eye is cushioned within orbit by pads of fat Lacrimal gland Produces tears Tears drain through the nasolacrimal duct.

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lecture 1 eye anatomy

Lecture 1: Eye Anatomy

Liana Al-Labadi, O.D.

eye anatomy
Eye Anatomy


eye anatomy1
Eye Anatomy
  • The orbital bone
    • The eye socket
    • Formed by:
      • Cheekbone
      • Forehead
      • Temple
      • Side of nose
    • Eye is cushioned within orbit by pads of fat
  • Lacrimal gland
    • Produces tears
    • Tears drain through the nasolacrimal duct



eye anatomy2
Eye Anatomy
  • Eyelids (L):
    • Protection:
      • Protects eye from foreign matter (dust, dirt, debris)
      • Protects against bright light that might damage the eye
    • Help spread tears over surface of eye- moist & comfort
  • Eyelashes (L):
    • Filter out foreign matter
      • prevent it from getting into eye


eye anatomy3
Eye Anatomy
  • Conjunctiva (Conj):
    • Thin, clear layer of skin
    • Covering of the front of eye
    • Covers the sclera and the inside of the eyelids
    • Function:
      • Keeps bacteria and foreign material from getting behind eye


eye anatomy4
Eye Anatomy
  • Sclera (S):
    • “White of the eye”
    • Tough, opaque tissue that extends around the eye
    • Surrounds the eye and gives the eye its shape
    • The sclera is attached to the extraocular muscles


eye anatomy5
Eye Anatomy
  • Extraocular Muscles
    • 6 extraocular muscles that are attached to each eye
    • Help move the eye left, right, up, down and diagonally
    • These 6 muscles are:
      • Superior rectus
      • Inferior rectus
      • Medial rectus
      • Lateral rectus
      • Inferior oblique
      • Superior oblique


eye anatomy6
Eye Anatomy
  • Cornea (K):
    • Clear layer at the front & center of eye
    • Located in front of the iris (colored part of eye)
    • Function:
      • Focus light as it enters eye
    • Avascular
      • Only organ that has no blood vessels


eye anatomy7
Eye Anatomy
  • Anterior Chamber (AC):
    • Fluid-filled space
    • Behind the cornea & in front of the iris
    • Fluid = Aqueous humor (AH)
      • AH helps nourish the cornea & the lens


  • http://www.goodhope.org.uk/departments/eyedept/angleclosureetc.htm
eye anatomy8
Eye Anatomy
  • Pupil (P):
    • Central opening of iris
  • Iris (I):
    • Ring shaped tissue
    • Colored part of eye
    • Controls the amount of light that enters the eye
  • Two muscle fibers:
    • Contraction
      • Constricts pupil in bright light
    • Dilation
      • Dilates pupil in dark


  • http://www.goodhope.org.uk/departments/eyedept/angleclosureetc.htm
eye anatomy9
Eye Anatomy
  • Anterior Chamber Angle
    • Located where the cornea meets the iris
    • Trabecular Meshwork
      • Site where aqueous humor drains out of eye
      • If AH cannot properly drain out
        • Pressure build up inside eye
          • Causes optic nerve damage & evetually vision loss = glaucoma


eye anatomy10
Eye Anatomy
  • Posterior Chamber (PC):
    • Fluid-filled space
      • Aqueous Humor!
    • Immediately behind the iris but infront of the lens


eye anatomy11
Eye Anatomy
  • Crystalline Lens:
    • Clear, flexible structure
    • Behind the iris & pupil
    • Surrounded by a ring of muscular tissue – ciliary body
    • The lens & ciliary body help control fine focusing of light as it passes through the eye


eye anatomy12
Eye Anatomy
  • Vitreous Chamber:
    • Located behind the lens & in front of the retina
    • Filled with a gel-like fluid called the vitreous humor
    • The vitreous help maintain the shape of the eye


eye anatomy13
Eye Anatomy
  • Retina:
    • Acts like the film in a camera to create an image
    • Consists of a specialized layer of cells
    • Converts light signals into nerve signal then send these signals to the optic nerve
      • Optic nerve carries the signals to the brain
      • The brain helps process the image
    • Rods- low light situations
    • Cones- allows you to see color



eye anatomy14
Eye Anatomy
  • Macula
    • Located in the central part of the retina
    • Responsible for giving sharp central vision
    • Used for reading, recognizing faces, and watching TV
    • Any disease that affects the macula will cause a change & impairment in the central vision


eye anatomy15
Eye Anatomy
  • Choroid
    • A layer of tissue that is:
      • Located under the retina
      • Separates retina & sclera
    • Mostly made up of blood vessels
    • Helps nourish the retina by carrying the blood supply to the eye’s internal structures


eye anatomy16
Eye Anatomy
  • Optic Nerve
    • A bundle of 1 million nerve fibers
    • Responsible for transmitting nerve signals from the eye to the brain
    • The optic disc is the front surface of the optic nerve
      • The optic disc is visible on the retina