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Gross Anatomy of the Eye. Cornea at anterior Light passes to lens Retina at posterior sensory tissue sensory cells: rods and cones. Sup. Lat. Med. Inf. 1. Cornea 2. Lens 3. Iris 4. Sclera 5. Macula 6. Optic Nerve Head 7. Retinal vessels 8. Vortex Veins. Looking at the Retina.

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Gross Anatomy of the Eye


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gross anatomy of the eye
Gross Anatomy of the Eye
  • Cornea at anterior
    • Light passes to lens
  • Retina at posterior
    • sensory tissue
    • sensory cells: rods and cones
slide3

Sup.

Lat.

Med.

Inf.

1. Cornea

2. Lens

3. Iris

4. Sclera

5. Macula

6. Optic Nerve Head

7. Retinal vessels

8. Vortex Veins

looking at the retina
Looking at the Retina

Macula- 3 by 5 mm area at the posterior pole of the eye

Fovea- in center of macula,

free of blood vessels

contains only cone cells

slide6

Back of the Eye

Front of the Eye

extrinsic eye musculature
Extrinsic Eye Musculature

For moving eye within its socket.

6 muscles per eyeball

Innervated by 3 Cranial nerves

eye movements

YAW

Eye Movements

Yaw: gaze shifts L/R

Pitch: gaze shifts up/down

Roll: eye rotates around

line of gaze (torsion)

  • Adduction: shifting gaze toward midline
  • Abduction: shifting gaze laterally

PITCH

ROLL

slide9

Extraocular Muscles

Anterior View of Left Orbit

slide11

Sup.

Post.

Ant.

Inf.

3 branch of CN III to Inf Obl.

5 Sup. Rectus

7 Inf Rectus

8 Optic Nerve

10 Abducens Nerve

11 Oculomotor Nerve (CN III)

ocular musculature
Ocular Musculature

Superior Rectus (SR)

Inferior Rectus (IR)

Lateral Rectus (LR)

Medial Rectus (MR)

Superior Oblique (SO)

Inferior Oblique (IO)

cranial nerves iii iv and vi
Cranial Nerves III, IV, and VI
  • III - Oculomotor
  • IV - Trochlear
  • VI - Abducens
iii oculomotor innervates
III (Oculomotor) innervates:

1) Medial rectus

2) Superior rectus

3) Inferior rectus

4) Inferior oblique

Levator palpebrae sup

Pupillary sphincter

Ciliary muscle

proprioceptive info from eye muscles
Proprioceptive info from eye muscles
  • comes through Trigeminal nerve.
eye movements1
Eye Movements
  • Saccades—rapid shift in gaze
  • Pursuit—stabilize image of moving object
  • Fixation—stabilize image of still object
  • VOR—stabilize image during head motion
  • OKN—backup for when VOR decays to cont’d head rotation
  • Vergent movements—change depth of focus
    • Accommodation-- automatic changes to see at different distances which is chiefly brought about by changes in the convexity of the lens. Horizontal vergence and accommodation normally occur together. The two responses are accompanied by an appropriate change in pupil diameter. The three concomitant changes are known as the near-triad response.
cortical areas oculomotor control
Cortical Areas: Oculomotor Control
  • Occipital Eye Fields (areas 18 and 19)
  • Frontal Eye Fields (area 8)
  • Temporal Eye Fields (area 22)
vor pathways
VOR Pathways
  • Vestibular nuclei
  • Abducens N.
  • Median Longitudinal Fasciculus
  • Trochlear N.
  • Oculomotor N.
saccades
Saccades

Pause cells inhibit

Burst Neurons

which stimulate:

III & VI (horizontal)

or

III & IV (vertical)