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Active vs. Passive Voice. University Learning Center UP: PC 247 / BB: ACI 160 Developed by Jeniffer Viscarra. Why should writers think about their verbs?.

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active vs passive voice

Active vs. Passive Voice

University Learning Center

UP: PC 247 / BB: ACI 160

Developed by Jeniffer Viscarra

why should writers think about their verbs
Why should writers think about their verbs?

“Verbs are the most important of all your tools. They push the sentence forward and give it momentum. Active verbs push hard; passive verbs tug fitfully.”

-- William Zinsser,

On Writing Well

what is active voice
What is Active Voice?
  • In the ACTIVE voice, the subject performs the action.

For example:

Joseph draws a picture.

  • Joseph is the subject and he is doing something (drawing).
when to use active voice
When to use ACTIVE voice
  • Often!!!
  • Use active voice unless you are required not to or have very specific reasons for doing otherwise.
  • Active voice generally leads to more concise writing.
  • It clarifies who is performing the action.

Remember: Staying active is a healthy practice, especially in your writing!

slide5

Active/Passive ReviewDecide which of the following sentences use the passive voice and which sentences use the active voice. Correct the sentences that contain either a) passive voice ORb) an abrupt shift in voice.

Example:

-Research on German fascism was conducted by me.

Passive construction

-I conducted research on German fascism.

slide7
For the opening flag ceremony, a dance was choreographed by Kema Jones to Bill Withers’ song “Lean on Me.”

Passive

For the opening flag ceremony, Kema Jones choreographed a dance to Bill Withers’ song “Lean on Me.”

slide8
Seismologists examined data concerning the recent earthquake, and reports about the damage were filed by them.

Active-Passive Shift

Seismologists examined data concerning the recent earthquake, and they filed reports about the damage.

slide9
Problems of famine, pollution, dwindling resources, and arms control were discussed by the senator.

- Passive

The senator discussed problems of famine, pollution, dwindling resources, and arms control.

slide10
Whenever Mrs. Clark found an error, the student made corrections to the essay.

Active Construction

what is passive voice
What is passive voice?
  • In passive voice the subject is acted upon.

For example:

The picture was drawn by Joseph.

In this case, the drawing is the subject and it is being acted upon by Joseph.

when to use passive voice
When to use passive voice
  • Rarely!!!
  • Use passive voice when you do not wish to emphasize the subject of the sentence.

Example:

  • Smoking is prohibited. (passive)
  • The management prohibits smoking. (active)

The passive sentence takes attention away from management, so they do not have to be in the role of the “bad guys.”

passive voice cont d
Passive Voice (cont’d)
  • Also use passive voice when you wish to emphasize what happened and the person or thing acting is unknown or unimportant.

Example

  • Poisonous gases were found in six factories.

The use of passive emphasizes the finding of

gases, not who found them.

Note: Because passive voice often leads to awkward or wordy

constructions, use passive voice sparingly and with good reason.

how to avoid passive voice
How to avoid passive voice
  • Many English verbs have been changed into nouns with by adding a suffix.

Announce – announcement

Propose - proposal

Depart – departure

Meet – meeting

  • For ACTIVE voice sentences use the VERB instead of the noun form of these kinds of words.
rewrite the following sentences by changing nouns to verbs
Rewrite the following sentences by changing nouns to verbs.
  • The two scientists could not arrive at a conclusion on anything.
  • They held discussions on several topics.
  • However, neither could put forth a proposal for a plan.
  • They only made a translation of previous studies.
possible answers
Possible Answers
  • The two scientists could not conclude anything.
  • They discussed several topics.
  • However, neither proposed a plan.
  • They only translated previous studies.
changing from passive to active voice
Changing From Passive to Active Voice

Another way of preserving active voice is by placing the noun/s doing the action before the verb. Try it!

  • The seeds were scattered by Jessica.
  • A healthy harvest is expected by Jessica and her father.
answers
Answers
  • Jessica scattered the seeds.
  • Jessica and her father expected a healthy harvest.
avoid forms of the verb to be
Avoid forms of the verb to be
  • All passives consist of a verb phrase with some form of the verb to be(am, is, are, was, were, being, been) plus a past participle.

Passive Example:The boy was impressed by Ms. Jones.

Active Example: Ms. Jones impressed the boy.

revise by avoiding to be verbs make the object of the preposition into the subject
Revise by avoiding to be verbs. (Make the object of the preposition into the subject.)
  • Houses were destroyed by the storm.
  • The cake was eaten by me.
  • Inexpensive ways for people to have fun are provided by parks.
  • Oxygen was discovered in 1774 by Joseph Priestley.
  • A kitten was chosen by the family to have as a pet.
possible answers1
Possible Answers
  • The storm destroyed houses
  • I ate the cake.
  • Parks provide inexpensive fun.
  • Joseph Priestley discovered oxygen in 1774.
  • The family chose a kitten as a pet.
summary
Summary
  • Use active voice unless specified otherwise.
  • Make sure the subject is acting and not being acted upon.
  • Use the verb form of words with suffixes.
  • Place subjects in front of the action they perform (this often eliminates to be verbs).
  • Avoid to be forms of verbs.