A Comparison of Real and Media-Based Classroom Discourse BY THARINEE BOONYUEN - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  1. A Comparison of Real and Media-Based Classroom DiscourseBY THARINEE BOONYUEN

  2. A Comparison of Real and Media-Based Classroom Discourse • Background of the study • Data collection • Methods of analysis • Findings • Discussion • Questions

  3. Background of the study • Education • Media • Critical discourse analysis (CDA)

  4. “Plants are shaped by cultivation and men by education…we are born totally unprovided, we need aid; we are born stupid, we need judgement. Everything we do not have at our birth and which we need when we are grown is given us by education.” (Jean-Jacques Rousseau, philosopher)

  5. Factors affecting learning situation 1.Education (principals, administrators, and teachers) 2.Society (governors, parents, employers and local community) Hedge (2000)

  6. Media • Media representation means “the re-presentation of the real” which is “the way in which ideas, objects, people, groups and life-forms are depicted by mass media” (Price, 1994, p. 33). • “No representation of reality can ever be totally “true” or “real”” (Croteau and Hoynes, 1997, p. 135).

  7. Why movies? • Good representative of the media • Sufficient information • Worldwide effects

  8. Critical discourse analysis • an approach to language analysis • examine spoken and written language and • study “how language serves to construct particular ideological positions which entail unequal relations of power” (Coffin, 2001, p. 99). • “defamiliarization and consciousness-raising” (Fowler, 1996, p. 5) • CDA bridges the gap between micro-level and macro-level analysis. (van Dijk, 1998)

  9. Purpose of the study What are the similarities and differences between real and media-based classroom discourse?

  10. DATA COLLECTION • 6 comparable transcripts of classrooms - 3 real classroom transcripts - 3 movie-classroom transcripts

  11. Criteria for collecting MOVIE-classroom data • released during 1995 – 2005 with a present day setting. • have good worldwide box offices. • written by different screenwriters. • last around 5 minutes. • in the field of Humanities and Arts. • have some teaching and learning or some subject matter. • teacher-learner and/or learner-learner interactions

  12. The characteristics of the collected movie-classroom data (MCD)

  13. The characteristics of the collected real classroom data (RCD)

  14. Methods of analysis • Length of turns • Directions of communication • Patterns of classroom communication • Nominations • Teachers’ questions • Teachers’ feedback • Discipline

  15. Length of turns How: 1. Proportion of TTT and STT 2. Length of turns by T and Ss 3. Length of turns among Ss To find out: Who talks most in the class

  16. Directions of communication How: Six patterns of directions of communication To find out: who is the focus of the communication

  17. Patterns of classroom communication How: Triadic structure of classroom exchange (initiation, response and feedback) To find out: 1. who control the content of the conversation 2. the variation in IRF patterns 3. negotiation of meaning

  18. Nomination How: General solicit and personal solicit To find out: how teachers control the turn taking

  19. Teachers’ questions How: Open and closed questions To find out: how teachers control over the learners’ response

  20. Teachers’ feedback How: To find out: how teachers exercise power through the use of evaluative and non-evaluative feedback strategies

  21. Discipline How: To find out: how teachers control students’ behavior through the use of judgmental and non-judgmental discipline strategies

  22. Results of the analysis

  23. Differences 1. Amount of negotiation of meaning MCD < RCD 2. Teachers controlling turn taking MCD > RCD 3. Teachers using power through feedback MCD > RCD (Ex. criticizing feedback strategy) 4. Teachers disciplining MCD > RCD Why?

  24. Wright (1987) says that teachers’ and students’ beliefs and attitudes directly and indirectly affect their expectations about classroom behavior.

  25. Differences 1. Amount of negotiation of meaning MCD < RCD 2. Teachers controlling turn taking MCD > RCD 3. Teachers using power through feedback MCD > RCD (Ex. criticizing feedback strategy) 4. Teachers disciplining MCD > RCD Why? Because: The beliefs and attitudes of teachers and students vary in each class.

  26. What is portrayed in these differences? “Authoritarian teachers” • the teacher is viewed as “professeur” (Widdowson, 1990, p. 188) who “claims a superior and dominant position by virtue of a role which has been socially ascribed to him or her” (ibid). • control the interaction tightly (Widdowson, 1990) • criticize and put down students when they make mistakes, and control student behaviors (Moore, 1995)

  27. How could this portrayal influence people’s perception and education? Examples: • Students’ learning • Course material, teaching method and curriculum

  28. According to Moore (1995), an authoritarian leadership style often results in a feeling of competitiveness among students.

  29. According to Margonis (1992), authoritarian is often used to label teacher-centeredness because the teachers impose knowledge and experience on the students without regard for students’ interest and abilities.

  30. What should we do? For educationalists • Be aware of the perception of people outside education. • Approach and communicate with people. For non-educationalists • Be aware of the influence of media on their perception. • Be critical of their opinion when taking part in educational decision making.

  31. Time for sharing your ideas

  32. THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR YOUR ATTENTION