A Comparison of Real and Media-Based Classroom DiscourseBY THARINEE BOONYUEN
A Comparison of Real and Media-Based Classroom Discourse • Background of the study • Data collection • Methods of analysis • Findings • Discussion • Questions
Background of the study • Education • Media • Critical discourse analysis (CDA)
“Plants are shaped by cultivation and men by education…we are born totally unprovided, we need aid; we are born stupid, we need judgement. Everything we do not have at our birth and which we need when we are grown is given us by education.” (Jean-Jacques Rousseau, philosopher)
Factors affecting learning situation 1.Education (principals, administrators, and teachers) 2.Society (governors, parents, employers and local community) Hedge (2000)
Media • Media representation means “the re-presentation of the real” which is “the way in which ideas, objects, people, groups and life-forms are depicted by mass media” (Price, 1994, p. 33). • “No representation of reality can ever be totally “true” or “real”” (Croteau and Hoynes, 1997, p. 135).
Why movies? • Good representative of the media • Sufficient information • Worldwide effects
Critical discourse analysis • an approach to language analysis • examine spoken and written language and • study “how language serves to construct particular ideological positions which entail unequal relations of power” (Coffin, 2001, p. 99). • “defamiliarization and consciousness-raising” (Fowler, 1996, p. 5) • CDA bridges the gap between micro-level and macro-level analysis. (van Dijk, 1998)
Purpose of the study What are the similarities and differences between real and media-based classroom discourse?
DATA COLLECTION • 6 comparable transcripts of classrooms - 3 real classroom transcripts - 3 movie-classroom transcripts
Criteria for collecting MOVIE-classroom data • released during 1995 – 2005 with a present day setting. • have good worldwide box offices. • written by different screenwriters. • last around 5 minutes. • in the field of Humanities and Arts. • have some teaching and learning or some subject matter. • teacher-learner and/or learner-learner interactions
Methods of analysis • Length of turns • Directions of communication • Patterns of classroom communication • Nominations • Teachers’ questions • Teachers’ feedback • Discipline
Length of turns How: 1. Proportion of TTT and STT 2. Length of turns by T and Ss 3. Length of turns among Ss To find out: Who talks most in the class
Directions of communication How: Six patterns of directions of communication To find out: who is the focus of the communication
Patterns of classroom communication How: Triadic structure of classroom exchange (initiation, response and feedback) To find out: 1. who control the content of the conversation 2. the variation in IRF patterns 3. negotiation of meaning
Nomination How: General solicit and personal solicit To find out: how teachers control the turn taking
Teachers’ questions How: Open and closed questions To find out: how teachers control over the learners’ response
Teachers’ feedback How: To find out: how teachers exercise power through the use of evaluative and non-evaluative feedback strategies
Discipline How: To find out: how teachers control students’ behavior through the use of judgmental and non-judgmental discipline strategies
Differences 1. Amount of negotiation of meaning MCD < RCD 2. Teachers controlling turn taking MCD > RCD 3. Teachers using power through feedback MCD > RCD (Ex. criticizing feedback strategy) 4. Teachers disciplining MCD > RCD Why?
Wright (1987) says that teachers’ and students’ beliefs and attitudes directly and indirectly affect their expectations about classroom behavior.
Differences 1. Amount of negotiation of meaning MCD < RCD 2. Teachers controlling turn taking MCD > RCD 3. Teachers using power through feedback MCD > RCD (Ex. criticizing feedback strategy) 4. Teachers disciplining MCD > RCD Why? Because: The beliefs and attitudes of teachers and students vary in each class.
What is portrayed in these differences? “Authoritarian teachers” • the teacher is viewed as “professeur” (Widdowson, 1990, p. 188) who “claims a superior and dominant position by virtue of a role which has been socially ascribed to him or her” (ibid). • control the interaction tightly (Widdowson, 1990) • criticize and put down students when they make mistakes, and control student behaviors (Moore, 1995)
How could this portrayal influence people’s perception and education? Examples: • Students’ learning • Course material, teaching method and curriculum
According to Moore (1995), an authoritarian leadership style often results in a feeling of competitiveness among students.
According to Margonis (1992), authoritarian is often used to label teacher-centeredness because the teachers impose knowledge and experience on the students without regard for students’ interest and abilities.
What should we do? For educationalists • Be aware of the perception of people outside education. • Approach and communicate with people. For non-educationalists • Be aware of the influence of media on their perception. • Be critical of their opinion when taking part in educational decision making.