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CI5472 Critical Discourse Analysis of Media

CI5472 Critical Discourse Analysis of Media. Worlds: Discourses. Discourses: ways of knowing/thinking; serves to limit/restrain ways of talking Foucault: “madness”/hysteria Rules for talking/defining knowledge Subjects--represent discourse “mad” people

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CI5472 Critical Discourse Analysis of Media

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  1. CI5472 Critical Discourse Analysis of Media

  2. Worlds: Discourses • Discourses: ways of knowing/thinking; serves to limit/restrain ways of talking • Foucault: “madness”/hysteria • Rules for talking/defining knowledge • Subjects--represent discourse “mad” people • Social practices for dealing with people

  3. Gee: discourses • Primary discourses: acquired in childhood • Secondary Discourses: more specialized, specific discourses • Academic, community, knowledge-based • Discourses as “identity tool-kits”

  4. Subject matter discourses • Moje & Dillon: discourses of science • Kinds of identities demanded in different spaces/classes • Carolyn: positioned as observer • Heather: private: struggling

  5. Racism as “Racialized Social Systems” • Placement of people in social categories • Attaching meaning to groups • Creation of hierarchies • Top group--economic, social, political power • Conflict: maintain vs. challenge hierarchy • Application of racial ideology to explain and justify hierarchy • “Blacks as lacking motivation to work”

  6. Racial Ideologies as “Interpretive Repertoires” • Common frames • Fear of the other; Token inclusionism • “Racetalk” • Avoid being seen as “racist”/Archer Bunker • Storylines used to justify hierarchy • “the past is part”/”my friend lost out on a job” • Categorizing: whiteness as normalizing • “White lives” isolated in schools/suburbs/peer group • Whites as “racial tourists”-- “others defined by what whiteness is not”

  7. Senator David Hann, R-Eden Prairie • If local residents cannot be persuaded to support increased funding for the schools their children attend, why should we expect citizens across the state to pay higher taxes to support them? • Malone also cites the recent phenomenon of "outside consultants" helping citizen groups organize opposition to levies as evidence of polarizing politics harmful to the mission of education. Yet we think nothing of the aggressive political natures of employment unions and their allies, or of district administrations and their lobbyists, spending huge amounts throughout the year, not just at levy time.

  8. “Color-Blind Racism” • Collective understandings/representations • Use of “racetalk” to avoid racist label • “Everyone is equal, but….” • “I am not prejudice, but…” • Denial of structural nature of discrimination • Criticism of government race-based programs • Use of storylines • “I didn’t own slaves” • “The past is past”

  9. Schools: Mediated by a discourse of “manageralism” • Distanced, technocratic stances “which disallows the speaking of concern, of welfare, of collective experience” (Fairclough, 2003) • Teachers as needing to be “accountable” • “pay for performance”: test “outcomes” • Emphasizes productivity, efficiency, and performance, • Disallows teachers from expressing alternative voices or perspectives • Statistical measures as objective representations of learning (NCLB)

  10. Cultural models • Movies/video tapes that define what is normal/typical within discourses • Reflects “common sense” assumptions • Evident in perceptions of hierarchies and discussion of what one values • Acquired through socialization and apprenticeship (Holland and Eisenstat, Educated for Romance)

  11. Culture model: Role of government • “Strict Father” model • Government should not coddle people who need to acquire self-reliance • Government needs to establish strict rules related to behavior • “Nurturing Parent” model • Government needs to assist people to help them succeed

  12. Syntax and power • Agency: who is doing the action? • Nominalization: actions into nouns: • “increased student and teacher accountability” • “scientifically-based, test-driven instructional approaches to reading” • Use of passive vs. active verbs • Deflect attention from actors • New skills-based methods have been implemented.”

  13. Language use • “ideologically-encoded words” • “terrorists” • “liberal” • Word phrases • “Tax-and-spend” • “Cut-and-run” • “Islamic facists”

  14. Pronouns • Imperial “we” • “We are at war against international terrorism” • “You”: in ads: synthetic sisterhood • “Our”: our way of life is threatened

  15. References to authority/texts • As a study conducted by X found… • As our reporters have discovered… • As endorsed by leading experts in the field… • As my generals have informed me…

  16. CDA analysis of advertising • Analysis of Sprite lowrider ad • Neiman Marcus catalogue • Walter Drake catalogue

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