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Designing Targeted SmallGroup Instruction S. Greenlaw, Adapted from work of… McKenna and Stahl, Debbie Diller, Linda Dorn, Tyner and Green WCC October 12, 2010 Models by S. Estabrook, Houlton RF
Set Purpose and Poll the Audience • Poll the Audience • Purpose: Walk-through a series of Small Group instruction options that target student assessment needs • Turn and talk about how these fit the needs of your students • Discuss how this fits RtI (GEI) for Tiers I & II
Key Words Guided reading is all about differentiation. “Differentiation is instruction that helps children accomplish challenging tasks that are just out of their reach, instruction that targets a particular group of children’s needs directly and temporarily, instruction that applies a developmental model.” - Sharon Walpole & Mike McKenna, 2008
Traditional small group reading Instruction THREE KINDS OF GROUPS (See handout) • Flexible Groups • Ability/Aptitude Groups • Cooperative Groups NOW LETS LOOK AT CURRENT PRACTICE….
Gather your instructionalresources • Review the state standards: Common Core Standards • And the scope and sequence in your instructional Materials (See K-3 Early Reading Target Areas and Maine Grade 3-5 GLEs/HMH scope and sequence). • Review the state assessments (NECAP) district assessments (NWEA,DRA,OS, DIBELS) and Any Assessments that come with your core program (Integrated theme test); • When needed do diagnostic assessments---Fill in gaps with additional assessments (Pre-Literacy Screening, Phonics/decoding screening, DSA-developmental spelling assessment)
Turn and Talk • What resources are already in place in your School? • What are you current using for assessments that inform teaching? • How do you use this information (data) when planning daily small group lessons? • What types of assessments are being used for Universal Screening, progress monitoring, diagnostic measures, and Outcome (summative measures)?
Consider your children’sneeds (KcKenna and Stahl—2008) • Given your screening data, you will know that some portion of children are likely at benchmark (or above), some are just below grade level, and some are well below grade level. • For children at benchmark, you can decide to focus small-group time on skills, skills and fluency, or on vocabulary and comprehension. • Only the below-grade-level children need additional diagnostic assessments
McKenna and Stahl (Walpole)---2008 The Cognitive Model See Handout Brief Q and A discussion…
Turn and Talk: Cognitive Model • Look at the parallel development of reading in McKenna and Stahl’s Cognitive Model, and think/talk about where some of your students fit on this model? • Think/Talk about how the assessments show you were your students are in their reading acquisition using this model?
Scientifically Based Reading Programs Instructional Content * Instructional Design Ingredients Recipe --Phonemic Awareness --Explicit Instructional --Phonics Strategies --Fluency --Coordinated Instructional --Vocabulary Sequences --Comprehension --Ample Practice Opportunities Ingredients Recipe
So…. How do we do this ? and What does it look like? (…In small groups)
Things to consider for Flexible Groupingwith Targeted small group instruction • Weekly Focus of Instruction • Differentiation of Instruction • Key Elements to Consider • Checklist for Forming Needs Based Groups • A Differentiation Plan (Samples)
Levels of Intensity of Small Group Instruction High Teacher Support/Highly Explicit & Systematic Skills Focused Groups (Walpole and McKenna) Differentiated Guided Reading (Diller, Dorn. Southall, Tyner) Guided Reading (Fountas & Pinnell) Low Teacher Support/Less Explicit and Systematic L. Larsen. MDOE
We will explore****Small Group Lesson Models… • Flexible grouping plan • Walpole and McKenna • Debbie Diller Model • Linda Dorn/Fountas and Pinnell Models • Tyner and Green models
Walpole and McKenna Lessons--2009 • Phonemic awareness and word recognition • Word recognition and Fluency • Fluency and Comprehension • Vocabulary and Comprehension
Sample: Phonemic Awareness and word Recognition GroupMcKenna and Walpole-2008 Alphabet Review 3 Min Initial Sound Sorting 3 Min 2 New Letter Sounds: Review Old Letter Sounds 3 Min 2 New HF Words Review Old High Frequency Words 3 Min Concept of Word 3 Min
Sample: Phonemic Awareness and Word Recognition GroupMcKenna and Walpole-2008 • Oral Segmenting and Blending 3 min • Short vowel Patterns 6 min • 4 New High frequency words Review old HF words 6 min
Sample: Word Recognition and Fluency GroupMcKenna and Walpole--2008 • Teach Letter Patterns ----- 6 min • New HF words Review old HF words------3 min • Decodable Text -------------6 min
Sample: Fluency and Comprehension GroupKcKenna and Walpole---2008 • Pre-teach difficult words 2 min • Choral or Echo read new text or passage 5 min • Partner or whisper read Same text 5 min • Summary or inference or Questions (use-comprehension skill and strategy from core scope and sequence) 3 min
Sample Vocabulary and Comprehension GroupMcKenna and Walpole--2008 • Pre-teach Vocabulary 3 min • Preview Comprehension skill and strategy 1 min • Teacher read-aloud or Whisper read 7 min • Comprehension Discussion 4 min
Turn and Talk:Walpole and McKenna Lessons • Pick a group of students • Thinking about the data you have and needs you have observed when working with this group of students, talk about which lesson might work for Targeting their needs?
Before Reading: ---Pre-teach tier-2 words ---Pre-teach vocabulary ---Build background ---Set purpose for reading ---review comprehension skill and stragtegy During Reading: Students partner read text or passage After Reading: ---Comprehension discussion --- Targeted skills review from difficult words in text ---word work connected to text ---writing response to text More than Guided ReadingAdapted from: L. Dorn, et al; Fountas & Pinnell; D. Miller; Tyner and Green and others
Targeted Guided Reading Lessons • Debbie Diller—Targeted small group lessons: PA, Phonics, fluency, vocabulary and comprehension • Linda Dorn: Guided Reading Plus Reading and writing lesson over two days: familiar read, new book, word work, writing.
Making the Most of small group instruction---Debbie Diller, (2008) • Using data, design flexible groups to target specific needs in the five essesntial elements: (walkthrough lesson frames) Phonemic Awareness and Rhyme Phonics Fluency Vocabulary Comprehension
Turn and Talk: Debbie Diller Lessons • Pick a group of students • Thinking about the data you have and needs you have observed when working with this group of students, talk about which lesson/s might work for Targeting their needs?
Before Reading: ---Pre-teach tier-2 words ---Pre-teach vocabulary ---Build background ---Set purpose for reading ---review comprehension skill and strategy During Reading: Students partner read text or passage After Reading: ---Comprehension discussion --- Targeted skills review from difficult words in text ---word work connected to text ---writing response to text More than Guided ReadingAdapted from: L. Dorn, et al; Fountas & Pinnell; D. Miller; Tyner and Green and others
Guided Reading Plus, Comprehension Focus Groups ---Linda Dorn (2006-09—in print) Two Types of Lessons: (walkthrough lesson frame) • Guided Reading Plus: A two day lesson framework that includes Reading and writing • Comprehension Focus Groups: The lesson framework foci is teaching strategic reading through comprehension strategies
Turn and talk: Linda Dorn Lessons • Pick a group of students • Thinking about the data you have and needs you have observed when working with this group of students, talk about which lesson/s might work for Targeting their needs?
Components and Activities for Small-Group Differentiated Reading Tyner and Green (2005) Lesson Models for Intermediate Readers Using both Narrative and Expository texts • Evolving Reader • Mature Reader • Advanced Reader (walkthrough lesson frames) See handouts
Organizational Models: • Flexible grouping plan • Walpole and McKenna • Debbie Diller Model • Linda Dorn/Fountas and Pinnell Models • Tyner and Green models (SAMPLES in handout)
Continuous Assessment Data-Based Instructional Planning Model for Student Success Instruction
Case Study on Johnny In October, Johnny’s kindergarten teacher notices that he is still having a hard time in school. She is trying to figure out how to best meet his needs during small group reading time. She has looked at the data and found the following: • DIBELS: Johnny received a score of O on PSF and is struggling on ISF. • Running Record: A CAP test showed that Johnny is still struggling with 1:1 matching, directionality and sound symbol association. • Classroom data: he cannot segment, knows only 6 letters (J, O, X, T, S, H) and only 5 sight words (Johnny, yes, no, mom, dad) • Informal Data/Teacher Observation: he can’t sing the alphabet, still does not know all the letters in his name, struggles with rhyming
What does Johnny need in small group instruction?Skills Focused Lesson
Case Study on Sylvia In January, Sylvia’s first grade teacher notices that she struggles with automatically solving sight words. She only uses initial and/or initial and final visual information. She has looked at the data and found the following. DIBELS: She knows letters sound by sound, but she cannot blend on NWF. She is below benchmark in this area. Running Record: She confuses HF words and is not fluent. She is currently reading at level 6/E. Scott Foresman: Shows that she still confuses short and long vowels in reading and writing. Informal data/Teacher Observation: Teacher notices that Sylvia often mimics student answers at groups and confuses HF words like was/saw, on/no, here/he/her
What does Sylvia need in small group instruction?Skills Focused Lesson
SO WHAT---NOW WHAT?Now we have set the stagefor PRESCRIPTIVE TEACHING (differentiated reading instruction) It is time to plan: So keep in mind… ----- your resources (classroom assessments, core materials/scope and sequence, leveled texts). -----Consider your children’s needs plan ONE WEEK OF … Small group targeted instruction
It is time to plan: So keep in mind… -------your Resources: • Assessments (both formal and informal), • core materials/scope and sequence, • Teaching tools: lesson frames, manipulatives leveled texts. -----Consider your children’s needs plan ONE WEEK OF … Small group targeted instruction
Options for MORE Learning… • Digging deeper into what DRA and DSA • Planning for Skills-Focused small group instruction— • Plan for Targeted Small group teaching • Explore classroom diagnostic reading assessment options
3-2-1 Feedback/ticket to go Jot down • 3 new things you learned? • 2 things you will need to know more about? • 1 thing you can start doing tomorrow?
Sources • Walpole and McKenna. (2009). How to Plan Differentiated Reading Instruction. Guilford Press • Walpole and McKenna (2007). Differentiated Reading Instruction for the Primary Grades. Guilford Press. • Southall.(2009). Differentiated Small-Group Lessons. Scholastic • Diller. (2007). Making the Most of Small Groups: Differentiation for all. Stenhouse. • Tyner and green. (2006) Small-Group Reading Instruction: A Differentiated Teaching Model for Intermediate Readers, Grades 3-8. IRA. • Dorn (2008-2009): Select CIM Workshops offered at University of Maine, Orono. • Dorn and Soffos. (2011).Interventions that Work; A Comprehensive Intervention Model for Reversing Reading Failure. Allyn & Bacon. • Dorn and Soffos. (2009). Interventions that Work: Guided reading Plus and Interventions that Work: Comprehension Focus Groups DVD. Stenhouse.
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