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FACTORIES ACT 1948!!. Presentation by: Roll No.s - 27, 29, & 31-38. Historical Background. The labour movement is a by-product of the industrial revolution. In order to trace the history of factories act in India, we should go back to the last decade of the 19 th century when-.

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Factories act 1948 l.jpg

FACTORIES ACT 1948!!

Presentation by:

Roll No.s- 27, 29, & 31-38


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Historical Background

  • The labour movement is a by-product of the industrial revolution.


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In order to trace the history of factories act in India, we should go back to the last decade of the 19th century when-

  • Advent of electricity boosted industrialization

  • Factories were working day and night

  • Exploitation of labour was at its peak.


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Towards the formulation: without break. Even children below the age of 7 years were in employment.

  • Miss Bristol brought to the notice of the secretary of state of India Lord Shaftsbury, who raised the voice in the parliament and thus the Indian Factories Act 1881 came on the statute book.


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The chronology: without break. Even children below the age of 7 years were in employment.

  • Indian factories Act 1881

  • Factories amendment act 1891

  • Enactment of new Factories Act 1911

  • Factories Amendment act 1922

  • Factories Act 1934

  • Factories Act 1948


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Need for the change: without break. Even children below the age of 7 years were in employment.

  • Experience of the working of act of 1934 revealed a number of defects and weaknesses which hampered effective administration. The provisions of safety health and welfare of workers were found to be inadequate ans unsatisfactory.


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Objectives of the Act without break. Even children below the age of 7 years were in employment.

  • It is a comprehensive piece of legislation covering all aspects relating to factories, including:

  • Approval, licensing, registration, inspection

  • Health, Safety, welfare, working hours, Employment of young persons Etc.


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Provisions for Health without break. Even children below the age of 7 years were in employment.

  • Cleanliness

  • Disposal of waste and effluents

  • Ventilation and temperature

  • Dust and fumes

  • Artificial humidification

  • Overcrowding

  • Lighting


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  • Drinking water without break. Even children below the age of 7 years were in employment.

  • Latrines and urinals

  • Spitoons


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Provisions for Welfare without break. Even children below the age of 7 years were in employment.

  • Washing facilities

  • Facilities for storing and drying clothes

  • Facilities for sitting

  • First aid appliances

  • Canteens

  • Shelters, rest rooms and lunchrooms

  • Creches

  • Welfare officers


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INTERPRETATION OF THE ACT without break. Even children below the age of 7 years were in employment.

  • Case1:

    Ravi shankar sharma vs state of rajasthan (1993)

  • Case 2:

    Leela vs state of kerela (2004)


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What is a Factory: without break. Even children below the age of 7 years were in employment.

  • Section 2 m.


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Special mention without break. Even children below the age of 7 years were in employment.

  • Section 85

  • Section 86


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But does not include: without break. Even children below the age of 7 years were in employment.

  • Mines

  • Mobile unit belonging to the armed forces of the union.

  • Railway running shed

  • Hotel, Restaurant, eating place.


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WORKER without break. Even children below the age of 7 years were in employment.

  • ACCORDING TO FACTORIES ACT 1948, WHO IS A WORKER.?


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MANUFACTURING PROCESS without break. Even children below the age of 7 years were in employment.

  • WHAT CONSTITUTES A MANUFACTURING PROCESS AS PER THE ACT?


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A PERSON WHO HAS COMPLETED 18 YEARS IS AN ………………………..

A PERSON WHO HAS COMPLETED HIS 15th YEAR OF AGE BUT NOT COMPLETED HIS 18th YEAR IS AN……………………………….

A PERSON WHO HAS NOT COMPLETED HIS 15th YEAR OF AGE IS A ……………………



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  • A PERIOD OF 24 HOURS BEGINNING AT MIDNIGHT IS CALLED………………..

  • A PERIOD OF 7 DAYS BEGINNING AT MIDNIGHT ON SATURDAY NIGHT OR SUCH OTHER NIGHT AS MAYBE APPROVED IN WRITING FOR A PARTICULAR AREA BY THE CHIEF INSPECTOR OF FACTORIES IS CALLED A ……………………


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OCCUPIER CALLED………………..

  • DEFINE AN OCCUPIER AS PER THE ACT SUPPORTING IT WITH RELEVANT CASE STUDIES?


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DUTIES OF AN OCCUPIER CALLED………………..

  • LIST DOWN THE DUTIES OF THE OCCUPIER?


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INSPECTING STAFF CALLED………………..

  • WHO IS AN INSPECTOR?

  • WHAT ARE THE POWERS OF AN INSPECTOR?


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CERTIFYING SURGEONS CALLED………………..

  • WHO IS A CERTIFYING SURGEON AND WHAT ARE THE DUTIES OF A CERTIFYING SURGEON?


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SAFETY OFFICER CALLED………………..

  • WHAT ARE THE CONDITIONS UNDER WHICH A SAFETY OFFICER NEEDS TO BE EMPLOYED IN A FACTORY?


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WELFARE OFFICER CALLED………………..

  • WHO IS A WELFARE OFFICER?


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OFFENCES BY WORKERS CALLED………………..

  • DISCUSS THE PROVISIONS IN CASE OF AN OFFENCE BY A WORKER?


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ONUS AS TO AGE CALLED………………..

  • DISCUSS ONUS AS TO AGE AND ONUS OF PROVING LIMITS OF WHAT IS PRACTICABLE?





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Hazardous Processes case of public emergency?

  • What are the provisions relating to hazardous processes?


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Working hours of adults case of public emergency?

  • What will be the weekly hours for an adult worker in a factory?



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Employment of young persons wages?

  • What are the provisions of employment of young children?


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Annual leave with wages is granted or renewed?

  • Who is entitled to leave with wages?




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