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Propaganda and Psychological Warfare Lessons from World War I A. Atrocity Propaganda B. “War to End All Wars”? C. Postwar Dislocation and Disillusionment FDR Determined to Avoid these Pitfalls A. OWI and the “Strategy of Truth”
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-politics & international affairs
-economics (mobilization, finance)
-science (advances in medicine, technological innovation)
-social & cultural developments (labor relations, issues of race, class & gender)
-literature (biography, memoir, fiction)
What should students know about WWII and why?
How do we accomplish these objectives?
-- Cannot isolate the battlefield from the larger political context
-- Cannot isolate foreign policy from domestic issues
-- War does not take place in a political, social, economic vacuum
-- Specific battles are useful as case studies but avoid the minutia of military operations
-- Always use good maps – military history an excellent way to increase students’ geographic awareness
-- Discuss the war’s meaning and significance for the people and societies engaged in it or victimized by it.
By the victors, the vanquished, or the victims?
Western Europe in ruins
Eastern Europe in ruins & occupied by the Red Army
Soviet Russia is devastated and determined to prevent aggression from the west from recurring
Southeast Asia peoples struggling to attain independence
How do COMBATANTS of every nationality remember the “good war”?
The Point: The US experience was unique -- Unlike the experience of any other WWII belligerent, and unlike any other US wartime experience
Death Distribution Of Both World Wars:
1. Atrocity Propaganda
2. “War to End All Wars”?
3. Postwar Dislocation and Disillusionment
Cartoon title: "Moral Suasion"
Caption: "The Rabbit. 'My offensive equipment being practically nil, it remains for me to fascinate him with the power of my eye.'"
Bonus Marchers’ Camp, Washington, DC. 1932
--what is it?
--what is its function in wartime?
--who is the audience?
--the audience determines the message
"Victory or Bolshevism" proclaims this poster that appeared in February 1943, following the German Army defeat at Stalingrad. The contrast is clear -- the Soviet Communists must be defeated or the German way of life is finished.
We will ruthlessly defeat and destroy the enemy!
Nonaggression Treaty Between the USSR and Germany
The sons of all the peoples of the Soviet Union are going into battle for their Soviet fatherland. Long live the Red Army – the army of the brotherhood and friendship of the peoples of the USSR!
Freedom of Speech
Freedom of Worship
Freedom from Want
Freedom from Fear
After 1940 the Selective Service under Lewis Hershey registered 43 million men ages 18-65, but the army sought only the 30 million under 45. Selective Service was administered by 6443 local draft boards. The Tydings Amendment in November 1942 exempted all agricultural workers and essential occupations. Married men were exempt until 1944, then 1 million fathers were drafted. By the end of the war, Hershey drafted 7.5m into army, 2.8m into navy. A total of 16m men and women served in uniform.
The National Advertising Council promised that stories and advertisements for consumer products would promote enlistment in the military and volunteerism at home. Note that the “idealized” America that was depicted by public relations firms and the media reflected a segregated society.
With the help of women workers, industrial production doubled between 1939-1945. The military production was astounding: 300,000 aircraft, 12,000 ships, 86,000 tanks, and 64,000 landing craft, in addition to millions of artillery pieces and small weapons.
WAC Officer: “I have precious little time to fuss with my face these days. Yet I know my skin has never been lovelier.”
“Beautiful and brave . . . doing the difficult jobs gallantly . . . that is America’s women. “
“Your men admire the magnificent job you are doing . . . And the dream of coming back to a You as beautiful as ever. Adopt this effective one-cream treatment . . . “
A riveting machine operator at the Douglas Aircraft Company plant joins sections of wing ribs to reinforce the inner wing assemblies of B-17F heavy bombers in Long Beach, CA.
To help overcome opposition to women in "men's" jobs, campaigns to recruit women workers stressed that production work called for domestic skills. If a woman could sew, she could rivet. If she could put together a pie, she could work on assembly line. Public relations campaigns emphasized patriotism, encouraging women to enter the workforce so their husbands, brothers, sons, and fathers could return home sooner.
--the hardships of the dual career life
--the exhilaration of independence
--married, older, with children
--nature of their work
-- fears, concerns, ambitions of
-- remember the Great War?
Allied ground forces begin landing in Normandy, France.
“Veterans must not be demobilized into an environment of inflation and unemployment, to a place on a bread line or on a corner selling apples. We must this time have plans ready.”
FDR signs the “GI Bill of Rights,” 1944
-$60 and a train ticket
-Bonus Act, 1924; Bonus Army, 1932
-education benefits: tuition, fees, books up to $500/year, plus a living allowance ($60 then $90/mo if married) up to 48 months. College costs rarely exceeded $300/yr even at the most expensive universities
-low-interest guaranteed home, business & farm loans
-unemployment insurance: “52/20 Club”
-2.4 million home loans for vets (1944-52)
-1945-48, 140,000 business & farm loans
-education & training: 7.8 million of nearly 16 million WWII vets (1944-1956) = 51% of all who served in armed forces
-2.2 mil college/university
-5.6 mil vocational or other training
-less than 20% of unemployment funds used
Students temporarily quartered in Indiana University’s Board of Regents’ board room.
--Syracuse, 1946-8 vets comprise >70% of male students and >50% of entire student body
--NC State College: 1940--2,500. 1947--5,328 students (4,030 vets).
--Indiana University: 4,498 in 1945, 11,414 in 1947
--Produced 450,000 engineers, 240,000 accountants, 238,000 teachers, 91,000 scientists
--College enrollments double
--Size of classes increase dramatically
--Required married student housing
for the first time
Registration at Harvard University after increased enrollments due to the GI Bill.
Scores of returning World War II veterans swelled the enrollment figures to an all-time high. The GI Bill, and those vets, were crucial to the development and expansion of the University of Houston in the post-war years.
The first residents moved into their units in November 1946, and the final residents, veterans of Korea, moved out in the late 1950s. Vetville was a progressive community. Rents were scaled to income, residents could take classes on marriage and sex education, and the local branch of the YMCA claimed to be the first coed "Y" in the country.
Limited access for Black Americans and GI Janes
--35% female veterans made use of education benefits
--GI Bulge results in some schools adopting male-only admissions policies in order to accommodate demand by returning male vets
--1 million African Americans served in US Army during WWII
--17% black soldiers had high school education, 41% whites.
--12% black GI Bill users pursued higher education, 28% whites.
--Higher percentage of black vets pursued subcollege educational benefits, many to complete high school education.
--By 1950, 49% black veterans had used education or training benefits, only 43% whites had
--Segregated schools in American south deny black vets admission
--Traditionally black colleges too few to accommodate black veterans
--Encouraged black vets to join “Great Migration” to north to further education
Millie Louise Dunn Veasey, born in Raleigh, NC. Served in WAC, 1942-45. Attended NC State, where In 1946, the male-female ratio was 48 to 1.
-doubled ratio of homeownership: 1:3 prewar, 2:3 postwar
“I’m not exactly the same girl you left. I’m twice as independent as I used to be and to top it off, I sometimes think I’ve become hard as nails – hardly anyone can evoke any sympathy from me. I’ve been living exactly as I want to live and I do as I damn please. You are not married to a girl that’s interested solely in the home. I shall definitely have to work all my life. I get emotional satisfaction out of working; I don’t doubt that many a night you will cook supper while I’m at a meeting. Also, dearest, I shall never wash and iron -- there are laundries for that!”
-Edith Speert, Cleveland, letter to soldier-husband, 1945.
Murray & Millett, A War to Be Won, 547.
Women's Postwar Future
This photograph headed a New York Times Magazine article in June 1946. Written by the director of the Women's Division of the Department of Labor, the article discussed the needs of women workers, stressing their right to work and to receive equal pay, but it also assumed that women would all but vanish from heavy manufacturing.
“Some jubilant day mother will stay home again, doing the job she likes best – making a home for you and daddy, when he gets back.
“Meanwhile she’s learning the vital importance of precision in equipment made by ADEL. In her postwar home she’ll want appliances with the same high degree of precision and she will get them . . . “
What then? Stay home . . . Do nothing? You know you won’t! Like our fighting men, you’ve earned the right to choose work you enjoy. An the time to prepare is . . . Now!
A surprising number of war workers are going to learn to type . . . a skill easy for them to acquire.
For women who want careers, typing is the opening wedge to the world’s most fascinating professions. For women who plan marriage, typing brings contacts with the world outside . . . keeps distant friends in touch, leads to club, business, and social activities that less accomplished women miss.
So do think about learning to type . . . “
“To all the valiant young mothers who’ve taken their great adventure alone . . . to all those other mothers who’ve smilingly waved goodbye to soldier sons, and to all women, you who daily make your contribution on the homefront, Eureka pays tribute. Yours is a shining kind of courage . . . Courage, feminine gender . . . As great as any soldier’s on a battlefield.
We have reason to know . . . For more than 70% of Eureka’s employees are women. Many of them leave their work benches at night to carry on with that other vitally important job of making a home for their children, and their hard-working, war-working husbands. We have special reason to know the special kind of courage that belongs to women . . . and how truly wonderful they are.
Today . . . We are readying our plans for the new Eureka vacuum cleaners you may be enjoying sooner than you think. Lighter, more powerful, incredibly efficient, thanks to the new skills, new materials and new facilities developed in war, they will be only one of a group of new household tools to help you take full advantage of the peacetime leisure you have so richly earned.”
Dead Americans lying on Buna Beach. This picture, published in LIFE magazine, shocked the American public unfamiliar with the cost of war. Photo taken November 16, 1942; published September 1943.
“Look at an infantryman’s eyes and you can tell how much war he has seen.”
--Bill Mauldin, Up Front, 1944
Battle of Tarawa
Marines on Peleliu
"2000 YARD STARE,“ Tom Lea
"Down from Bloody Ridge Too Late. He's Finished - Washed Up - Gone"
"As we passed sick bay, still in the shell hole, it was crowded with wounded, and somehow hushed in the evening light. I noticed a tattered Marine standing quietly by a corpsman, staring stiffly at nothing. His mind had crumbled in battle, his jaw hung, and his eyes were like two black empty holes in his head. Down by the beach again, we walked silently as we passed the long line of dead Marines under the tarpaulins."
70,000 killed immediately. As many as 140,000 people died within the year.
200,000 total estimated deaths caused by the Hiroshima bomb by 1950.