International Conflict CHAPTER FIVE Dr. Clayton Thyne PS 235-001: World Politics Spring 2009 Goldstein & Pevehouse, International Relations, 8/e Student notes version
Largest contemporary wars: • Of the 11 wars, all but Chechnya (Russia) are in the ________________________________. • All but Colombia are in a zone of active fighting spanning parts of Africa, South Asia, and the Middle East. • Most peace agreements in the world’s postwar zones are _____________________________.
Types of War: Hegemonic War • War over control of the entire world order – the rules of the international system as a whole, including the role of world hegemony. • Last hegemonic war was _________________ • Likely that due to the power of modern weaponry, this kind of war could not occur any longer without destroying civilization
Types of War: Total War • Def: • Goal is to… • Evolved with industrialization, which further integrated all of society and economy into the practice of war • Example: • Last total war:
Types of War: Limited War • Includes military actions carried out to… • Example: • Raids:
Types of War: Civil War • Refers to war between… • U.S. Civil War of the 1860s - • El Salvador in the 1980s – • May often be among the most brutal wars • __________ million deaths from 1945 to 1999 • Compared to ________ million deaths for interstate wars • Last _________ years on average • Compared to ____________ months for interstate wars
Types of War: Guerrilla War • Includes certain types of civil wars; is warfare without front lines • Irregular forces operate in the midst of, and often hidden or protected by, civilian populations. • Purpose:
Causes of War: Approaches • The question of why war breaks out can be approached in different ways. • Broad generalizations about the causes of war have been _________________. • Wars do not have a single or simple cause. • Levels of analysis can help us organize theories of war.
Causes of War: Individual & Domestic Explanations • Individual level of analysis: • Rational decisions of leaders: • Deviations from rationality: • The domestic level of analysis:
Causes of War: Interstate Explanations • Interstate level: • Power transition theory: • Deterrence: • Arms race: • No general formula has been discovered to tell us in what circumstances each of these principles holds true.
Causes of War: Global Explanations • Global level of analysis: • Several variations on the idea that major warfare in the international system is cyclical. • One approach links wars with long economic waves in the world economy (~50 years) • Another approach links the largest wars with a 100-year cycle based on the creation and decay of world orders. • These cycle theories at best can… • Theory of linear long-term change:
Conflicts of Ideas • Six types of international conflict: • Conflicts over less/non-tangible material interests: • Conflicts over tangible material interests: • Most difficult types of conflict have… • These identity-based sources of international conflict today have been shaped historically by…
Conflicts over less/non-tangible material interests:Nationalism • Devotion to the interests of one’s own nation over others • May be the most important force in world politics in the past two centuries • Nationality is a difficult concept to define precisely. • Historical development of “nationalism” • Principle of self-determination
Conflicts over less/non-tangible material interests: Ethnic Conflict • Stems from… • Quite possibly the most important source of conflict in the numerous wars now occurring throughout the world. • Nationalism tied to territory, often • Ethnic groups: • Often form the basis for _____________________________ • Genocide • Def:
Conflicts over less/non-tangible material interests: Ethnic Conflict • Causes of ethnic hostility • Kinship: • History: • Ethnocentrism • Education can • Very difficult to solve because it’s very hard to divide anything • Global identity in the future?
Because religion is the core of a community’s value system in much of the world, people whose religious practices differ are… Fundamentalist movements Secular political organizations Conflicts over less/non-tangible material interests: Religious Conflict
Conflicts over less/non-tangible material interests: Ideological Conflict • Ideology _________________ and _______________conflicts between groups and states more than it causes them. • Because they have a somewhat weaker hold on core values and absolute truth than religions do, they pose somewhat fewer problems for the international system. • China Maoist communism in 1949; Russia’s Leninist communism in 1917, U.S. democracy in 1776 • Angola
Conflicts over tangible material interests: Territorial Disputes • Means of controlling territory – primarily military • Can be (1) ____________________________________ or • (2) __________________________________________ • Change in economies change in territorial conflict: • Old days: • Modern days: • Interstate borders • Old days: • Post-WWII norm: • Little territory has changed hands through force • Most changing of borders has happened peacefully (through ICJ or World Court mostly) • Secession (def): • E.g., US civil war; Chechnya, Bosnia-Serbia • Intl norm is against approving of secessionist movements
Conflicts over tangible material interests: Lingering Disputes • Israel • Israel’s war of independence cease-fire (1948) • Six day war further expansion (1967) • Camp David peace treaty retraction of borders (1978) • Dispute still exists over Gaza Strip (near Egypt), Golan Heights (near Syria), and West Bank (near Jordan) • Kashmir: India vs. Pakistan • India’s part: inhabited by Muslims (minority in India, majority in Pakistan) • Pakistan’s view: India oppressed Kashmiris, thwarts potential popular referendum • India’s view: Pakistan aids Islamic radicals, who attack Indian-occupied Kashmir • Nagorno-Karabakh: Armenian-populated territory in Azerbaijan • Crimean peninsula: Russia vs. Ukraine • Many disputes today involve conflicts over tiny (often uninhabitable islands)
Conflicts over tangible material interests: Others • Territorial waters • UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (1973-82) • Airspace
Conflicts over tangible material interests: Control of Governments • Most struggles to control territory do not involve _________________________. • They are conflicts over which governments will ________________________. • International conflicts over the control of governments – along with territorial disputes – are likely to lead to...
Conflicts over tangible material interests: Economic Conflict • Most pervasive form of conflict in IR; in a global capitalist market, all economic exchanges involve some conflict of interests • Conflict • Mercantilism: • Lateral pressure theory: • Drug trafficking: