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Grammar Book. Por Heli Mummert. Table of Contents. Subjunctive with Adjective Clause Tú Commands Nosotros Commands Past Participles Used As Adjectives Present Perfect Past Perfect Future Tense Conditional Tense Past Subjunctive. Subjunctive with adjective Clause.

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Grammar book

Grammar Book

PorHeli Mummert

Table of contents
Table of Contents

  • Subjunctive with Adjective Clause

  • Tú Commands

  • Nosotros Commands

  • Past Participles Used As Adjectives

  • Present Perfect

  • Past Perfect

  • Future Tense

  • Conditional Tense

  • Past Subjunctive

Subjunctive with adjective clause
Subjunctive with adjective Clause

  • Adjective clauses modify nouns or pronouns. The subjunctive can be used in adjective clauses to indicate that the existence of someone or something is uncertain or indefinite.

  • The subjunctive is used in an adjective clause that refers to a person, place, thing, or idea that either does not exist or whose existence is uncertain or indefinite.

  • - ¿Conoces un buen restaurante que esté cerca de mi casa?

  • The indicative is used when the adjective clause refers to a person, place, thing, or idea that is clearly known, certain, or definite

  • - Hay una casa que es muy grande y cómoda.

T commands

  • Affirmative Tú Commands

  • Put in tú form and removethe –s

  • - Hablar → Hablas → ¡Habla!

  • Irregular Commands

  • - Di, Haz, Ve, Pon, Sal, Se, Ten Ven

  • Pronounsattach to theend of irregular affirmativecommands

  • - Levántate!

  • Accents are addedon:

  • - Thirdfromlast: onepronoun

  • - Fourthfromlast: twopronouns

  • Negative Tú Commands

  • Put in YO form, drop the –o, switch the vowel, and add an s

  • - Hablar → Hablo → ¡No Hables!

  • Irregular Commands

  • - Pronouns go before the verb









Nosotros commands
Nosotros Commands

  • When using nosotros commands, you simply replace the vowel of the indicative word - EX: Hablar Hablemos

  • However, when you are conjugating a reflexive verb into a nosotros command, it becomes a “mono” verb

  • - EX: Levantarse  Levantémonosrather than Levantémosnos

  • Stem changers do NOT change because they are in nosotros form, except for dormir

  • Affirmative nosotros commands add pronouns to the end of the word and accents are places on the vowel that is changed

  • - EX: Ducharse  Duchémonos  Duchémonoslo

  • Negative nosotros commands place pronouns before the comand

  • - EX: No ducharse  No nosduchemos

  • Irseis an irregular verb and goes to vamonosin the affirmative and no nosvayamosin the negative

Past participles use as adjectives
Past participles use as adjectives

  • The past participles of English verbs often end in –ed– To turn  turned

  • In Spanish, regular –ar verbs form the past participle –ado and regular –er and –ir verbs form the past particple with –ido

  • - EX: Enojar  Enojado

  • - EX: Conducir  Conducido

  • The past participles of –er and –ir verbs that stems end in –a, -e, or –o carry a written accent mark on the –i of –ido

  • - EX: Caer Caído

  • - EX: Leer  Leído

Irregular Past Participles

Abrir Abierto

Cubrir  Cubierto

Decir  Dicho

Hacer Hecho

Escribir  Escrito

Describir  Descrito

Morir  Muerto

Poner  Puesto

Resolver  Resuelto

Romper  Roto

Ver  Visto

Volver  Vuelto

Present perfect
Present perfect

  • Present perfect tense is used to describe the recent past

  • In English, it refers to something you have done

  • When forming present perfect, you use the auxillary verb haberto help the infinitive verb

  • The infinitve verb is replace with the past participle as an adjective

  • - EX: I have driven to Monte Carlo  He manejado a Monte Carlo

  • The auxiliary verb and the past participle are married and NOTHING goes in between the verbs

  • Pronouns and other words go before haber

Past perfect
Past perfect

  • Past perfect refers to something you had done in the past

  • It is formed the same way as present perfect but one exception

  • The haber auxiliary verb is conjugated into the imperfect tense

  • - EX: Penséqueyase habíanido

  • The past perfect is often used with the word ya (already)

  • - EX: Ella yahabíaempezadocuandollamaron

Future tense
Future Tense

  • The future tense is often associated with plans, predictions, or events that are less certain

  • Infinitive + ending = future

  • -- Ex. To say I will eat in the morning, you would say Comeré en la mañana.

  • The future of hay is habrá

  • Endings used for all verbs including –ar, -er, and –ir






Conditional tense
Conditional Tense

  • The conditional tense expresses what you would do or what would happen under certain circumstances

  • The conditional endings are the same for all –ar, -er, and –ir verbs

  • Conditionals are formed by combining the infinitive form of the verb with the correct ending

  • Conditionals have the same irregulars as future tenses

  • EX: Nadaríamásríos.

Past subjunctive
Past Subjunctive

  • Also called the imperfect subjunctive

  • For all verbs, the past subjunctive is formed with the ellos/ellas form of the preterite

  • Drop the –ron ending and add on the specific past subjunctive ending

  • Irregular preterite tenses like snake and snakey verbs keep their irregularity with past subjunctive

*Quisierais often used to make polite requests