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Grammar Book. Lala Varley. Table of Contents. 21. . 1. Nacionalidades 2. Stem Changing Verbs 3. P ara 4. Indirect Object Pronouns 5. Pronoun Placement 6. Gustar 7. Affirmative and Negative Words 8. Superlatives 9. Reflexives

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Grammar book

Grammar Book


Table of contents
Table of Contents


1. Nacionalidades

2. Stem Changing Verbs

3. Para

4. Indirect Object Pronouns

5. Pronoun Placement

6. Gustar

7. Affirmative and Negative Words

8. Superlatives

9. Reflexives

10. Affirmative tu commands + irregulars + pronoun placement

11. Negative tu command + irregulars + pronoun placement

12. Sequencing events

13. Preterite (trigger words)

14. –car, -gar, -zar

15. Deber and inf.

16. Modal verbs

16. Present progressive

17. Adverbs

18. Trigger words, car gar zar, spock, snake/snakey, cucaracha

19. Demonstrative

20. Future Tense

Las nacionalidades
Las Nacionalidades

Stem changers
Stem Changers

  • Boot Verbs change only inside the “boot’’

  • There are four kind of boot verbs.

    • O-ue

    • E-ie

    • E-I

    • U-ue

    • The endings remain the same for –ar , -er, and –ir verbs.

    • Nosotros and Vosotros forms do not change.

Indirect object p ronouns
Indirect Object Pronouns

  • Can be used to a repetition of the noun and answer the question whom? Or what? About the verb.


  • Pes, yatienesropa de verano.

  • Claro que la tengo.

  • Indirect objects are nouns that tell to whom/what or for whom/what. They are to replace or accompany indirect objects.

  • Singular:

  • Me (me)

  • Te (you familiar)

  • Te (you formal, him, her)

  • Plural:

  • Nos (us)

  • Os (you familiar)

  • Tes (you, them)

Pronoun placement
Pronoun Placement

  • 1. attach the pronoun to the infinitive

  • 2. attach the pronoun to a progressive tense

  • 3. attach the pronoun to an affirmative command

  • 4. place the pronoun before a conjugated verb

  • How do you know where indirect object pronouns go in a sentence?

    • When the pronoun accompanies a conjugated verb, the pronoun comes before the verb.

    • When the pronoun accompanies a sentence with an infinitive, it can either go before the conjugated verb or be attached to the end of the infinitive.

    G ustar

    • When you want to express what activities people like to do you use these phrases with an infinitive.

    me gusta… nosgusta…

    tegusta… osgusta…

    le gusta… les gusta…

    • When you want to talk about things that people like, change the form of gustar to match the singular or plural nouns for those things.

    Affirmative and negative words
    Affirmative and Negative Words

    • When you want to talk about an indefinite or negative situation, you use an affirmative or negative word.

    • Affirmative Words:

    • Algo (something)

    • Alguien (someone)

    • Algun/Alguno(a) (same)

    • Siempre (always)

    • Tambien (also)

    • Negative Words:

    • Nada (nothing)

    • Nadie ( no one)

    • Ningun/Ninguno(a) (none, not any)

    • Nunca (never)

    • Tampoco (neither, either)

    Notice that alguno(a) and ninguno(a) must match the gender of the noun they replace or modify. Alguno and ninhuno have different forms when used before masculine singular nouns.



    • Suffix:

      -Isimo, isimos, isima, isimas

      *added to adjectives and adverbs

      *equivalent to extremely or very before an adjective or adverb.

    • Change Spelling!

      -Rico > requisimo

      -larga> larguisima

      -feliz > felicismo

      *adjectives that end in –n or –r form by adding -cisimola


    What does a reflexive pronoun do?

    • Shows that the direct object is the same of the do-er.

    • In reflexive construction, the subject is also the object.

    • A person does as well as receives the action.

    • The subject, the pronoun, and verb are all in the same form.

    For example:

    -Yo me levantoa lasocho de la manana.

    -Ella se despiertamuytemprano.

    -Mishermanas se maquillanessucuarto.

    Position of Pronouns:

    IN FRONT of a conjugated verb

    Attached to a gerund

    Attached to an infinitive

    How do you form these verbs?

    Conjugate the verb as always

    Add the reflexive pronouns (me, te, se, nos, os, se)

    Affirmative tu commands irregulars pronoun placement
    Affirmative tu commands + irregulars + pronoun placement

    • Di (Decir)

    • Haz (Hacer)

    • Ve (Ir)

    • Pon (Poner)

    • Sal (Salir)

    • Se (Ser)

    • Ten (Tener)

    • Ven (Venir)

    DOP + placement rules are the same thing!

    Negative tu command irregulars pronoun placement
    Negative tu command + irregulars + pronoun placement

    • Tu Commands:

    • Positive

    • Drop the ‘s’

    • 2) Negative

    • put into yo form

    • Change the vowel

    • Add an ‘s’

    • 3) Irregulars

    • Decir Di

    • HaceHaz

    • IrVe

    • Ser Se

    • PonerPon

    • VenirVen

    • Tenir Ten

    • Salir Sal

    Irregular Commands:

    T- tener (no tengas)

    V- venir (no vengas)

    D-dar/decir (no des/digas)

    I- Ir (no vayas)

    S- ser (no seas)

    H- hacer(no hagas)

    E- estar (no estes)

    S- saber (no sepas)

    Pronoun Placement:



    Before a conjugated verb

    Affirmative command**

    Ex: Do it! Hazlo!


    *Note –car ending preterite verbs in the yo form will change to –que in order to keep the hard ‘c’ sound: ex. Yosaqué(sacra) la basuraayer.

    Car gar zar
    -car, -gar, -zar

    Trigger Words for Preterito:

    • Un dia

    • Unavez

    • Ayer

    • Hace un año

    • El mespasado

    • Anteayer

    • Porunahora

    • Por fin

    • A lasocho

    • El cinco de Febrero









    Deber infinitive
    Deber + infinitive

    • The verb deber means should or ought to. To say what people should do, use a conjugated form of deber with the infinitive of another verb.

    Modal verbs

    • When verbs are used in modal verb combinations:

      • The second verb isn't conjugated, but rather left in the infinitive form. You would NEVER say “no puedonado”

        Deber - should/ought to

        Desear – to desire

        Necesitar – to need

        Poder– can/could/might be able to

        Querer – want/would like to

        Saber – to know how to/know

        Soler – usually/used to

    Present progressive
    Present Progressive

    • Some verbs you know have irregular present participle forms.

      • When the stem of an –er or –ir verb emds in a vowel, change the –iendo to-yendo to form the present participle.

      • e i stem-changing verbs have a vowel change in the stem

      • Some other verbs also have vowel change in the stem.


    • For adjectives with –o or –a endings, add –mente to feminine form.

    • When you use two adverbs, drop the –mente from the first one.

    Negative t commands
    Negative tú commands

    • Use when telling someone NOT to do

    • Formed by taking you form for the present tense, dropping the -o and adding the appropriate ending.

      Ex. Hablo -es for –ar verbs

      Vuelvo  -as for –er and –ir verbs

    Irregular negative t commands
    Irregular negative tú commands

    • A few verbs have irregular negative tú commands. Notice thar none of the yo forms of these verbs end in –o.

    Preterite snake snakey y cucaracha
    Preterite, Snake, Snakey y Cucaracha


    Stem Changers



    Y Changers


    Demonstrative adjectives nad pronouns
    Demonstrative adjectives nadpronouns

    • Point out nouns

    • -this, that, these, those

    • Proceed nouns they follow and agree in gender and number

      Este estaestosestas



      *This and these get the “t’s”

      *esto, eso and aquello are neuters

      *no accent mark on adjective demonstratives but there are accents on pronouns

    Ordinal numbers
    Ordinal numbers

    • Primera

    • Segunda

    • Tercera

    • Cuarta

    • Quinta

    • Sexta

    • Sptima

    • Octava

    • Novena

    • Decima

    Un canto de las preposiciones
    Un canto de laspreposiciones

    • Izquierda (de), derecha (de)

    • delante (de), detrás (de)

    • Cerca (de), lejos (de)

    • …..y algo mas

    • Afuera (de), adentro (de)

    • Debajo (de, encima (de)

    • Entre, al lado (de)

    • … termina la rima

    The future tense
    The Future Tense

    • You can use: ir + a + infinitive

      Ex. Vamos a ESTUDíAR en la biblioteca.

    • You can use the present tense when the context makes it clear that you are talking about the future.

      Ex. Mañana ALQUILAMOS unapelícula.

    • You can also use the future tense. You form the future tense by adding a special set of endings to the infinitive.


    Possessive adjectives and pronouns
    Possessive adjectives and pronouns


    Same form as stressed adj.

    Definite articles:

    EL LOS

    LA LAS

    *omitted when stressed poss. Pronoun follows the verb ser

    • Adj (of mine, yours, his)

      Mío(s) Mía(s)

      tuyo(s) tuya(s)

      Suyo(s) suya(s)

      Nuestro(s) nuestra(s)

      Vuestro(s) vuestra(s)

      *placed AFTER the noun they modify

      Demonstrative adj. :

      (article) + (noun) + de+ (sub. Pronoun)



    Ongoing action (was/were)

    Repeated action (used to)

    No definite beginning or end


    Interrupted activity (cuando)

    • Triggers:

      • Todos los días

      • A menudo

      • A veces

      • Siempre

      • Cadadía

      • Los lunes

      • Generalmente

      • Mientras

      • De vez en cuando

      • Muchasveces

      • frecuentemente


    • Me

    • Te

    • se

    • Nos

    • Os

    • Les

    Demonstrative adjectives and pronouns
    Demonstrative Adjectives and Pronouns

    Demonstrate or point out nouns

    • This, that, these, those

      Proceed nouns that follow & agree in GENDER & NUMBER

    • este, esta, estos& estas are close to the speaker

    • Ese, esa, esos & esas aren’t necessarily close to the speaker but are close to the listener

    • Aquel, aquella, aquellos & aquellas are away from both the speaker and the listener

    Aquí- this & these

    Allí- that over there

    Allá- that WAY over there


    • NEUTERS:

    • Esto, eso & aquello

    • Use if unsure about gener

    • NEVER carry an accent mark!!!

    No accent mark on adjective demonstratives but there are accents on pronouns.