Coffee Family - Rubiaceae Genus - Coffea Species - arabica and canephora
Where is Coffee Grown? Gresser, Charis and Sophia Tickell. “Mugged: Poverty in Your Cup.” Oxfam International 2002:7 About 28 of the world's tropical countries contribute significantly to the 11 million hectares devoted to coffee plantations, spilling 6.2 million metric tons of green coffee beans in 1998.
Where is coffee grown? • Coffee is cultivated mainly in Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Some of the main producer-countries are Brazil, Columbia, Indonesia, Mexico, Ethiopia, Guatemala, India, Uganda, and others r = robusta production, a = arabica, m = mixture
Arabica, C. arabica Tetraploid, self fertile Ethiopia highlands >1600m 15-24°C 1300 mm Best quality Susceptible to rust Robusta, C. canephora Diploid, self incompatible Rain forest of Congo basin <750m 24-30°C 1550 mm Less flavor, acidity Resistant to rust Two Types of CoffeeAbout 90 Coffeaspp in Africa Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University
PLOIDY = # sets of chromosomes • Haploid = 1 set of chromosomes • Diploid = 2 sets of chromosomes • Triploid = 3 sets of chromosomes • Quadraploid = 4 sets of chromosomes • etc.. • Polyploid = greater than 3 sets (a generalized term)
Coffee chromsomes and genes Chromosomes: arabicahas double the number of chromosomes at 44 than robusta at 22.
White 1 Removed stamensfrom purple flower • Genes code for specific traits, like pod shape, flower color, etc. Stamens Carpel 2 Transferred pollen from stamens of white flower to carpel of purple flower PARENTS(P) Purple 3 Pollinated carpel matured into pod • This illustration shows his technique for cross-fertilization without bees! 4 Planted seeds from pod OFF-SPRING(F1) Figure 9.2C
Pairs of chromosomes: One chromosome from each parent: and each has a gene for each characteristic = pairs of the same gene or different (= hybrids) • Alternative forms of a gene reside at the same location on pairing chromosomes GENE LOCATION B=DOMINANT gene P a B P a b B=recessive gene GENOTYPE: PP aa Bb Both the samedominant gene Both the samerecessive gene Both dominant +recessive gene Figure 9.4
MEIOSIS: gamete formation = egg + sperm Ploidy is reduced by half 2N to N 4N to 2N 102N to 51N (many ferns)
FLOWER COLOR Purple White • Mendel studied seven pea characteristics FLOWER POSITION Axial Terminal • He hypothesized that there are alternative forms of genes (although he did not use that term), the units that determine heredity SEED COLOR Yellow Green SEED SHAPE Round Wrinkled POD SHAPE Inflated Constricted POD COLOR Green Yellow STEM LENGTH Figure 9.2D Tall Dwarf
Coffee Production and Yield Africa S. America S. America C. Amer C. Amer Africa Asia Asia Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University
COFFEE GROWN WITHOUT SHADE Fields with coffee bushes grown under direct sunlight are referred to as technifiedfarms. There is, for instance, an array of shade levels within coffee farms all over the northern portion of Latin America Some farms have no shade at all, such as this technified farm.
COFFEE WITH MINIMAL SHADE Other farms, like this one in the image on the screen, have some trees. For all intents and purposes, however, such shade does little in the way of providing habitat for migratory forest songbirds or resident birds associated with the local area.
DISEASE SPURS SUN COFFEE RISE • Much of the impetus for technification in Central America, the Caribbean and even in Colombia came from the arrival of one of coffee's most dreaded diseases: coffee leaf rust. • This leaf with yellow spots is typical of how infected vegetation appears. A fungal disease caused by the fungus (Hemileiavastratrix), this disease devastated the coffee area of Sri Lanka in the 1870s and 1880s. Some reports maintain that this then-British colony (Ceylon) switched to growing tea—as did the British in general—because of this pathogen.
Dependency on Coffee Gresser, Charis and Sophia Tickell. “Mugged: Poverty in Your Cup.” Oxfam International 2002:8
Arabica, C. arabica Medium size tree 14-20’ tall Medium vigor Leaves Smaller Thinner Seedlings uniform Robusta, C. canephora Medium to large tree Up to 32’ tall Vigorous Leaves Larger Thicker Seedlings variable Two Species (Types) of CoffeeAbout 90 Coffeaspp in Africa Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University
The Seed of the Fruit is the Economic PartA Drupe like a Peach • Both begin bearing in 3-4 years • Time to mature fruit • Arabica, 7-8 months • Robusta, 11-12 months • Productive for 20-30 years • Both need pruning for best production Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University
Coffee Production • Planting • Slightly acid (pH 5.2 to 6.3) well drained soil • Beginning of wet season • Vertical position or 30° angle • Spacing - need light for fruit ripening • Arabica, 1350 trees/ha • Robusta, 900-1000 trees/ha • Time to fruiting • Take 3-4 years to obtain mature plant • Fruit on year old wood Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University
Coffee Tree Growth Cycle • Dry and/or cool season • Floral initiation • Reduced vegetative growth • Wet season • Flowers open, fruit set and begin development • Active vegetative growth • Dry and/or cool season • Fruit ripen • Flower buds initiate • Reduced vegetative growth Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University
Shade and Coffee Production Data from Wilson, 1999. Coffee, Cocoa, and Tea, Figure 6.4. Conclusion: High input system - better with fertilizer Low input system - not as essential Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University
All Audubon Coffees are Certified Shade-Grown and Organic. All Audubon Coffees are Certified Shade-Grown and Organic.
Smithsonian Research • Researchers at the Smithsonian Migratory Bird Center found of all agricultural systems in the tropics, traditionally-managed coffee plantations support more species of birds -- over 150 -- than any other type of agriculture.
Traditionally, coffee was grown under a canopy of shade trees, providing critical wintering habitat for many species of migratory birds and preserving the rich biodiversity inherent in tropical rainforests.
Increasingly, however, industrial coffee farms, where land is cleared of its lush vegetation to grow coffee in full sun, are replacing traditional coffee farms. With this conversion from traditional shade grown to industrial sun-grown coffee comes a corresponding decrease in migratory bird species, and this decrease in species diversity is dramatic -- over 90% fewer bird species are found on sun-grown coffee farms than on shade-grown coffee farms.
Audubon Coffee Powerpoint • http://shadecoffee.org/ShadeCoffee/Portals/0/Get_Involved/Chapter%20Outreach/NWSCC_slideshow_non-IE.htm
The Wood Thrush, Shade Grown CoffeeThe New Hope Audubon SocietyFred Houk, Jr. December 30, 2000, Chapel Hill Herald