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COMM 5402 Advanced Interpersonal Communication. Spring 2004. Human Need for Explanation. Need for theory in human mind 3 ways of experience the world observer theorist (observer & explanation) researcher (theorist & test). Defining Theory I. Defining Theory II. Theoretical Models.

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Comm 5402 advanced interpersonal communication

COMM 5402Advanced Interpersonal Communication

Spring 2004

Human need for explanation
Human Need for Explanation

  • Need for theory in human mind

  • 3 ways of experience the world

    • observer

    • theorist (observer & explanation)

    • researcher (theorist & test)

Theoretical models
Theoretical Models

  • Units (Variables)

  • Laws of Interaction

  • Boundaries

  • System States

  • Propositions

  • Operationalizations

  • Hypotheses


  • What about Truth? Does research lead to truth?

  • What exactly is the difference between adequacy and validity of a theory?

  • Why is a preferred theory determined by consensus and not by validity?

Ideas to keep in mind
Ideas to keep in mind

1) No a priori limits on what theory is about

2) A theoretical model has to be complete

3) Adequacy = internal logic

4) Validity is determined through research

5) Only testing makes a theory scientific

Preferred theory
Preferred Theory

Is a matter of consensus

- consensus about boundaries & scope

- consensus about the internal logic

- consensus about empirical evidence

Standards of a scientific theory
Standards of a Scientific Theory

  • Explanation

  • Prediction

  • Parsimony

  • Falsefiability

  • Utility

Description vs research
Description vs. Research

  • Descriptions answers questions for the answer’s sake

  • Research tests predictions to validate a theoretical model

Two goals of science


focus on outcomes

focus on variable values

focus on stability & transition of system states


focus on understanding of causal relationships among units

Two Goals of Science

Two paradoxes
Two Paradoxes

  • Precision: prediction without understanding

  • Power: understanding without prediction


  • In your group, think of an example for the precision paradox and an example for the power paradox.

  • Using your examples, determine whether they really are paradoxes, and try to resolve them (i.e., explain how they are possible)

Explaining the paradoxes
Explaining the Paradoxes

  • Precision: deterministic relationships among units lead to stable associations between them that can be observed

  • Power: theoretical models highlight significant relationships between units w/o accounting for ALL causal factors or their interactions

Units defined
Units defined:

Units are mental conceptualizations that represent the parts of a theoretical model that interact with one another in specific ways.

Theoretical models1
Theoretical Models







= Laws of Interaction

= Boundary

Properties of units
Properties of Units

  • Units are things or properties of things

  • Units are plural, at least in principle

  • Units can be attributes or variables, i.e., are categorical or continuous

  • Units can be real or nominal, i.e., represent actual or hypothetical constructs

  • Units can be sophisticated or primitive, i.e., are defined or undefined

Exercise determined the properties of these units
Exercise: Determined the properties of these units

  • Relational intimacy in a couple

  • A person’s religious belief

  • A group’s ethnicity

  • Family communication patterns

  • A person’s height

Homework assignment
Homework Assignment

Think of a phenomenon in interpersonal communication that is in need of a theoretical explanation (i.e., a topic for your term paper). Write a one paragraph research proposal answering the what & why questions.

Due Wednesday!

Laws of interaction
Laws of Interaction:

  • link units of a theory

  • do NOT imply causality

  • may be categorical

  • may be sequential

  • may be determinant

Types of interaction
Types of Interaction:

  • linear

  • curvilinear

  • recursive

Efficiencies of laws
Efficiencies of Laws

High Efficiency

  • rate of change

  • covariance

  • directionality

  • presence-absence

Low Efficiency

Conditions for causality
Conditions for Causality

  • Covariance

  • Temporal Precedence

  • Exclusion of Alternatives

Conditions for causality1
Conditions for Causality

  • Covariance

  • Temporal Precedence

  • Exclusion of Alternatives


  • A truth statement in regard to the theoretical model

  • NOT in regard to reality (i.e., no need for empirical truth)

  • Must follow accepted rules of logic

  • A statement about the relationship among units

  • NOT a statement about unit or set membership.

Propositions laws
Propositions & Laws

  • equivalent to a law of interaction

  • more limited then a law of interaction

  • combining two or more laws of interaction

Empirical indicators
Empirical Indicators

  • Operationalization of a theoretical construct

  • Good Indicators are reliable and valid

    Reliability: consistency of measure

    Validity: measuring the right thing.

Reliability and validity
Reliability and Validity







Types of validity in social science
Types of Validity in Social Science

  • Face Validity

    • Does it make sense?

  • Content Validity

    • Is the entire concept represented?

  • Criterion Validity

    • Does it correlate with other known measures?

  • Construct Validity

    • Does it behave like the construct outside the model?



A hypothesis is a prediction about the values of units of a theory (where empirical indicators are employed for the units in each proposition) that allow researchers to assess the validity of the theoretical model.

Three condition of a good test of a scientific theory
Three condition of a good test of a scientific theory

  • A) deducible

    • from the theoretical model

  • B) improbable

    • unless theoretical model is “true”

  • C) verifiable (testable)


  • Quality of hypotheses

  • Validity of indicators

  • Completeness of theoretical model

Hypotheses testing and theory development
Hypotheses Testing and Theory Development

  • Extensive Tests: test all strategic hypotheses

  • Intensive Tests: test only key hypotheses

  • Inductive Tests: build theory from empirical data

Defining interpersonal communication
Defining Interpersonal Communication

Interpersonal Communication is any interaction between two or more persons who:

* exchange information,

* create meaning,

* exert influence, or

* establish social reality


  • A widely used concept in study of relationships

  • A variable property of a relationship, including (among others):

    • Closeness & Interdependence

    • Self-Disclosure

    • Warmth & Affection

Importance of intimacy
Importance of Intimacy

  • Associated with relational development

  • Associated with relationship quality & satisfaction

  • Associated with personal health & well being (psychological & physical)


  • Define Intimacy. In 1-2 paragraphs, write a definition of intimacy that captures the concept of intimacy how you would define it for yourself.

Four approaches to intimacy
Four Approaches to Intimacy

  • Life Span Development

    • Develop identity  develop intimacy

  • Motivational

    • Individual need/ability for intimacy

  • Equilibrium

    • Dialectic between independence and intimacy

  • Equity

    • Intimacy as fairness and equality

Intimacy in romantic dyads
Intimacy in Romantic Dyads

  • Three Core Dimensions:

    • Intimacy

    • Love

    • Commitment

  • Conceptually distinct, but dependent on one another

Love styles lee 1973
Love Styles (Lee, 1973)

  • Primary Styles

    • Eros: passionate, intense, powerful

    • Ludus: playful, non-committal, flirtatious

    • Storge: comfortable, stable, gradual

  • Secondary Styles

    • Pragma: practical, rational, pragmatic

    • Mania: manic, obsessive, extreme

    • Agape: altruistic, devoted, content

Validity of the msis
Validity of the MSIS

  • Face Validity?

    • Do items seem to capture the concept?

  • Content Validity?

    • Do items cover entire breadths of concept?

Dimensions of the msis
Dimensions of the MSIS

  • Self-Disclosure (2,4,10)

  • Affection (3,12, 16)

  • Satisfaction (11, 14, 17)

  • Time spend together (1, 7)

  • Understanding (5, 13)

  • Feeling Close (6, 9)

  • Being Supportive (8, 15)

Msis population means

Satisfied Couples


Males = 153

Females = 156


Males = 135

Females = 139

Dissatisfied Couples


Males = 125

Females = 134

MSIS Population Means

Social penetration theory
Social Penetration Theory

  • Relationship Growth = More Intimacy

  • Intimacy results from Self-Disclosure

    Increase Depths of Knowledge of Other

    Increase Breadth of Knowledge of Other

  • Motivation for Self-Disclosure is expected outcome (rewards-costs)

Self disclosure and intimacy
Self-Disclosure and Intimacy





Four stages of exchange
Four Stages of Exchange

1) orientation

2) exploratory affective exchange

3) affective exchange

4) stable exchange

Social exchange theory thibaut kelly
Social Exchange Theory(Thibaut & Kelly)

  • Terms

    O = Perceived Outcome

    CL = Comparison Level (Expectation)

    CLalt = CL of Alternatives (Expectations for alternative relationship)

  • Predictions

    Satisfaction: compare O and CL

    Stability: compare O and CLalt

Relationship outcomes predicted by social exchange theory
Relationship Outcomes predicted by Social Exchange Theory

O < CLalt

O > CLalt






O > CL





O < CL


Five aspects of exchange
Five Aspects of Exchange

1) Reward & Cost: Difference or Ratio?

2) Absolute Rewards and Costs

3) Immediate Rewards and Costs

4) Forecast Rewards and Costs

5) Cumulative Rewards and Costs

Exchange profit vs equity motivation
Exchange: Profit vs. Equity Motivation

Profit = an individual’s rewards/cost ratio

Equity = each person’s rewards/costs ratio is about equal

Exchange profit vs equity motivation1
Exchange: Profit vs. Equity Motivation

Profit = an individual’s rewards/cost ratio

Equity = each person’s rewards/costs ratio is about equal


  • Is self-disclosure motivated by desire for profit or equity?

  • Does it make a difference?

Dyadic effect
Dyadic Effect

  • Dyadic Effect: Observation that self-disclosure by one person is usually reciprocated by the other.


  • Norm of Reciprocity

  • Attributions

Attributions for self disclosure
Attributions for Self-Disclosure

  • Content (cause for SD)

    • Self

    • Other

    • Relationship (situation?)

  • Valence:

    • Positive

    • Neutral

    • Negative

Attributions and reciprocation
Attributions and Reciprocation





- SD

+ SD

+/- SD


+/- SD

+ SD

- SD



+ SD

+/- SD

- SD

Factors affecting attributions
Factors Affecting Attributions

  • Timing of Self-Disclosure

  • Social Rules & Norms

  • Relationship History

  • Salient Situational Factors

  • Content of Self-Disclosure

A model of reciprocity in self disclosure
A Model of Reciprocity inSelf-Disclosure



Interest in Relationship


Capacity to Self-Disclosure

Marriage as social transition
Marriage as Social Transition

  • A social transition affects groups of people rather than individuals

  • Motives for social transitions are both psychological and social

  • The three phases of the marriage as social transition are: precommitment, postcommitment, & event

Conditions for commitment
Conditions for Commitment

  • On Average, greater pros than cons (i.e., greater rewards than costs)

  • Small variability (consistency) of positive outcomes

Causes for commitment changes
Causes for Commitment Changes

  • Intrapersonal/Normative

    Standards, beliefs, ideals, rules, norms

  • Dyadic

    Agreement, conflict, interdependence, behavior

  • Social Network

    Reactions from family& friends

  • Circumstantial

    External events, job-related, etc.

Typical effects of specific causes
Typical Effects of Specific Causes

  • Intrapersonal/Normative (7%)

    moderate & rapid decrease

  • Dyadic (64%)

    affects all changes, but is generally positive

  • Social Network (20%)

    moderate & rapid decrease

  • Circumstantial (10%)

    moderate decrease

Modeling marital intention
Modeling Marital Intention

Dyadic factors

Intrapersonal factors

Decision to Marry

Circumstantial factors

Network factors

Modeling marital intention1
Modeling Marital Intention


Dyadic factors

Intrapersonal factors

Decision to Marry

Circumstantial factors

Intimacy Needs

Network factors

Modeling marital intention2
Modeling Marital Intention


Dyadic factors


Intrapersonal factors

Decision to Marry

Circumstantial factors

Intimacy Needs

Network factors

Components of social exchange
Components of Social Exchange

1) equivalence of type of resources

2) immediacy of exchange of resources

3) equivalence of value of resources

4) contingency of exchange

5) range of resources available for exchange

6) transferability of obligation to exchange

7) obligation to initiate exchange

8) imbalance of exchange

Exchange rules and intimacy
Exchange Rules and Intimacy

  • exchange becomes more heteromorphic as intimacy increases

  • amount of time before return is needed increases as intimacy increases

  • need to return resource of equivalent value decreases as intimacy increases

  • exchange becomes less contingent as intimacy increases

Exchange rules and intimacy1
Exchange Rules and Intimacy

  • range of resources that are exchanged increases as intimacy increases

  • obligation to exchange resources is more transferable to another person as intimacy increases

  • degree to which persons feel obligated to initiate in exchange increases as intimacy increases

  • degree of acceptable unilateral indebtedness increases as intimacy increases

Axioms of social exchange theory
Axioms of Social Exchange Theory

  • Social Exchange is one important factor in all human relationships

  • Social Exchange is determined by the Norm of Reciprocity

  • Norm of Reciprocity varies according to Intimacy

  • Social Exchange varies along specific dimensions (components)

Limitations of social exchange theory
Limitations of Social Exchange Theory:

  • The definitions of exchange rules are clear only for low intimacy

  • The definitions for exchange rules are unclear for high intimacy

  • Important terms such as resource are undefined or defined too broadly

  • The mechanism that is used to compute and remember balances is undefined

Communal relationships
Communal Relationships

  • Based on concern for welfare of other

  • Need is basis for transfer of resources

  • Receipt of benefit does not create “debt” or obligation to “return favor”

  • Characterized by “equality of affect”

  • Vary in strength

  • Vary in certainty

Comparing exchange communal relationships


Norm of Reciprocity

Transfer initiated if other can reciprocate

Relationship is means for instrumental goals


Norm of Mutual Responsiveness

Transfer initiated if other in need

Relationship is intrinsically rewarding

Comparing Exchange & Communal Relationships

Relationship type and attraction
Relationship Type and Attraction

  • Communal Relationship

    • returned favor decreases attraction

    • request for returned favor decreases attraction

    • request for favor increases attraction*

  • Exchange Relationship

    • returned favor increases attraction

    • request for returned favor increases attraction

    • request for favor decreases attraction

  • Ergo: Attraction function of met expectations

Features of women s talk
Features of Women’s Talk

  • ask more questions

  • engage in conversational maintinance

  • verbal minimal responses

  • silent protest

  • more integrative language

Features of men s talk
Features of Men’s Talk

  • interrupt more

  • more challenges & disputes

  • ignore others

  • control topic

  • more declarations and opinions

Cross gender miscommunication
Cross-Gender Miscommunication

  • Minimal Responses

    • agreement vs. interest

  • Questions

    • request for info vs. keeping other talking

  • Introducing Topics & Topic Shifts

    • individual responsibility vs. cooperation

  • Discussing Problems

    • finding solutions vs. empathy

Gender differences in relational cognition
Gender Differences in Relational Cognition

  • Women think more frequently & complexly about their relationships

  • Women habitually think & talk about relationship

  • Men think & talk about relationship only during crisis

  • Women’s well-being more tied to relationship perceptions than men’s

Gender differences in self concept
Gender Differences in Self-Concept

  • Women:

    • Relational self-concept

    • Identity based on friendship & popularity

    • Femininity indicative of relational orientation

  • Men:

    • Separate self-concept

    • Identity based on achievement & autonomy

    • Masculinity based on separate orientation

Linking gender self concept and communication
Linking Gender, Self-concept, and Communication

Gender based Socialization

Gender based Self-Concept

Gender specific Behavior

The biological view
The Biological View

  • Sexes are inherently different in some respects due to biological functions

  • Men are stronger & more aggressive

  • Women are more verbally fluent

The theory of evolution
The Theory of Evolution

Life evolves through the dual process of random mutation and selection, such that those changes that increase a gene’s (i.e., usually its carrier) reproductive success are passed on to future generations and spread through the gene pool, whereas changes that decrease a gene’s (i.e., usually its carrier) reproductive success are not passed on and disappear from the gene pool.

Theory of evolution darwin
Theory of Evolution (Darwin)

  • Variation (random change of traits)

  • Inheritance (passing on of traits to offspring)

  • Selection (of advantageous traits)

    - Survival

    - Reproduction

Inclusive fitness hamilton
Inclusive Fitness (Hamilton)

  • Evolution understood from the gene’s perspective(I.e., Selfish Gene)

    • Essentially, genes evolve

    • Solves “problem” of altruism

Evolved psychological mechanisms
Evolved Psychological Mechanisms

  • solve specific recurring problems of survival or reproduction

  • takes in limited information

  • uses decision rules to obtain output

  • output can be psychological, physiological, or behavioral

Sex differences due to evolution
Sex Differences due to Evolution

  • i.e., sex-differences in behavior that are the result of different reproductive challenges for the sexes

  • Parental Investment

  • Parental Certainty

Parental investment
Parental Investment

  • Men = low investment (intercourse)

    • Less selective with sex partners

    • Attraction based on fertility

  • Women = high investment (pregnancy)

    • More selective with sex partners

    • Attraction based on ability to provide and loyalty

Parental certainty
Parental Certainty

  • Men = low certainty

    • Sexual jealousy

    • Les attachment to children

  • Women = high certainty

    • Emotional jealousy

    • More attachment to children

The cultural view
The Cultural View

  • Two communication sub-cultures

  • Males = rational, work-oriented, leaders, in public sphere (white male belief system)

  • Females = emotional, relationship-oriented, followers, in private sphere (female belief system)

The power view
The Power View

  • Influence is central to relationships

  • Males view of power = power over people

  • Females view of power = power to accomplish

The rhetorical view
The Rhetorical View

  • Individuals make personal choices about:

    • Goals

    • Strategies

    • Roles

  • Males and Females differ in the choices the make (often due to situation)

Comparing the 4 views
Comparing the 4 Views








Potential for Change



4 viewpoints on gender differences
4 Viewpoints on Gender Differences

  • Biology

    - differences due to evolution

  • Culture

    - two spheres with different belief systems

  • Power

    - different definitions and uses of power

  • Rhetoric

    - different choices made by men & women

Relationship satisfaction
Relationship Satisfaction


  • Happiness with relationship/partner

  • Psychological intimacy in relationship

  • Sexual & physical intimacy

  • Interdependence with partner (severity of loss)

  • Adjustment to relationship/partner

  • Commitment to relationship/partner

Antecedents to satisfaction
Antecedents to Satisfaction

  • Achieving Intimacy (psychological & physical)

  • Becoming Interdependent & Adjusting to it

  • Meeting or Exceeding Expectations (Comparison Level)

Satisfaction and communication
Satisfaction and Communication






Nvc satisfaction
NVC & Satisfaction

  • Non-verbal accuracy is associated with greater marital satisfaction

  • Married couples are much better at accurate NVC than stranger couples

  • Women are more accurate encoders of nonverbal affect, especially positive affect using the visual channel

Nvc of dissatisfied partners
NVC of Dissatisfied Partners

  • More difficulty conveying positive affect

  • More difficulty decoding neutral affect

  • More difficulty predicting NVC success

  • Less positive on neutral affect

  • More use of negative affect

The relationship between nvc and satisfaction
The Relationship between NVC and Satisfaction

  • Do better nonverbal communication skills lead to greater satisfaction? How so?

  • Does greater satisfaction lead to better nonverbal communication? How so?

Defining understanding
Defining Understanding

Three Levels of Understanding

  • Being able to predict other’s behavior

  • Being able to explain processes that lead to behavior (rational understanding)

  • Being able to experience other’s thoughts and feelings (empathetic understanding)

The role of understanding
The Role of Understanding?







Marriage types
Marriage Types

  • Traditionals: high interdependence, conventional ideology, engage conflict

  • Independents: high interdependence, unconventional ideology, engage conflict

  • Separates: low interdependence, conventional ideology, avoid conflict

Marital types and verbal communication
Marital Types and Verbal Communication

  • Traditionals & Independents

    • more fondness

    • more pleasantness

  • Separates

    • less fondness

    • less pleasantness

Marital satisfaction and verbal communication by gender
Marital Satisfaction and Verbal Communication by Gender

  • Husbands’ Satisfaction

    • Wives’ responsiveness

    • Wives’ use of we-ness

    • Husbands’ fondness of wives

    • Husbands’ use of we-ness

  • Wives’ Satisfaction

    • Wives’ fondness of husbands

    • Wives use of we-ness

Relational maintenance strategies
Relational Maintenance Strategies

  • Positivity

  • Openness

  • Assurances

  • Network

  • Sharing Tasks

Predicting relational maintenance strategy use
Predicting Relational Maintenance Strategy Use

  • Gender

    • Females use more

  • Social Exchange

    • Benefit-ratio predicts maintenance strategies

    • Equity: curvilinear relationship

    • Interdependence: linear relationship

Benefits ratio and maintenance strategy use
Benefits-Ratio and Maintenance Strategy Use





Benefits Ratio

Marriage beliefs
Marriage Beliefs

  • Marriages are determined by 3 underlying beliefs

    • ideology

    • interdependence

    • conflict style (avoidance)

Marriage types1
Marriage Types

  • Traditionals: high interdependence, conventional ideology, engage conflict

  • Independents: high interdependence, unconventional ideology, engage conflict

  • Separates: low interdependence, conventional ideology, avoid conflict

Marriage types and conflict
Marriage Types and Conflict

  • Traditionals = validators

    • validate each other, problem solvers

  • Independents=volatile

    • emotional, expressive, like to fight

  • Separates=avoiders

    • usually don’t bother to complain

Marital types and verbal communication1
Marital Types and Verbal Communication

  • Traditionals & Independents

    • more fondness

    • more pleasantness

  • Separates

    • less fondness

    • less pleasantness

Marital satisfaction and verbal communication by gender1
Marital Satisfaction and Verbal Communication by Gender

  • Husbands’ Satisfaction

    • Wives’ responsiveness

    • Wives’ use of we-ness

    • Husbands’ fondness of wives

    • Husbands’ use of we-ness

  • Wives’ Satisfaction

    • Wives’ fondness of husbands

    • Wives use of we-ness


The Strong Bond between Infant & Primary Care Giver

  • Innate (shared with many other animals)

  • Necessary for Survival & Development

  • Characterized by Multi-Stage Reaction to Separation

Attachment cont
Attachment (cont.)

  • Necessary for Survival & Development

    • Secure Base Function

    • Save Haven Function

  • Characterized by Multi-Stage Reaction to Separation:

    • Protest

    • Despair

    • Detachment

    • Rebound from Detachment

Ainsworth s attachment styles determined by strange situation
Ainsworth’s Attachment Styles(determined by Strange Situation)

  • Secure

    - briefly upset, then happy & satisfied

  • Avoidant

    - no emotional response, then avoid mother

  • Anxious/Ambivalent

    - very upset, then initially avoidant

Pcg s behavior and infant s attachment style
PCG’s Behavior and Infant’s Attachment Style

  • Reliably Available 

    Secure Attachment

  • Reliably Unavailable 

    Avoidant Attachment

  • Unreliably Available/Over Involved

     Anxious/Ambivalent Attachment

Kobak s attachment dimensions
Kobak’s Attachment Dimensions









Bartholomew s four attachment styles
Bartholomew’s FourAttachment Styles

Model of Self







Of Other





Comparing infant and adult attachment



Parent or Other Adult

Exploration System easily overwhelmed



Peer & Sexual Partner

Separation has to be sever to elicit attachment like reaction

Comparing Infant and Adult Attachment

A model of attachment transmission
A Model of Attachment Transmission









Cognitive representations of attachment
Cognitive Representationsof Attachment

General Attachment Model

Relationship Type

Attachment Model

Relationship Specific

Attachment Model

A model of attachment transmission ii
A Model of Attachment Transmission II

General Attachment


Relationship Attachment Model








Reinforcing existing attachment models
Reinforcing Existing Attachment Models

  • Independence of General Attachment Model (AM) from Relationship AM

  • Selection of Partner with congruent AM

  • Self-Fulfilling Prophecy

    • Own Behavior elicits Response from Partner consistent with AM

  • Relationship Experience reinforces AM

Attachment communication satisfaction i
Attachment, Communication & Satisfaction I




Attachment communication satisfaction ii
Attachment, Communication & Satisfaction II




Attachment and nonverbal communication
Attachment and Nonverbal Communication

  • Positive Model of Self

    • Less Anxiety

  • Positive Model of Other

    • More Intimacy

    • More Affiliation

  • Fearful Avoidance

    • Less Fluency


Associative Networks of memory nodes

Schemas impact on cognition information processing
Schemas’ Impact on Cognition (Information Processing)

  • Bias how we perceive and interpret the world around us:

    • what we pay attention to

    • what we discount

    • what we memorize

    • what other info we access

Important schemas
Important Schemas

  • Self

    • Attributes: personality, features, tendencies…

    • Affect & Motivations: emotions, goals,…

    • Personal History

  • Others

    • Like self, only less extensive

Relationship schemas
Relationship Schemas

  • Cognitive Representations of Relationships

  • Associate Networks that contain declarative and procedural knowledge of self, the other, and the relationship between self & other.

  • Knowledge includes: attributes, motives, emotions, relationship history, & interpersonal scripts

Self other relationship schemas
Self, Other, & Relationship Schemas




Models of relationships
Models of Relationships













Close relationship beliefs
Close Relationship Beliefs

  • Intimacy

    • Trust, respect, communication, coping, support, acceptance, love, friendship, compromise

  • External Factors

    • Security, network, finances, similarity, kids

  • Passion

    • Sex, vitality

  • Individuality

    • Independence, equity

Model congruency and relationship satisfaction
Model Congruency and Relationship Satisfaction

  • Relationship satisfaction NOT correlated with belief strength

  • Relationship satisfaction correlated with overlap between relationship type and relationship specific beliefs

Conclusions about relationship models
Conclusions About Relationship Models

  • Relationship Type Models

    • well developed, based on socialization

    • idealistic representations

  • Relationship Specific Models

    • Well developed, based on experience

    • realistic representations

  • Both types play role in information processing

Relationship models and information processing
Relationship Models and Information Processing

  • Models are important for controlled processing

  • Models are important for automatic processing

  • Models guide behavior (directly & indirectly)

Relational model theory
Relational Model Theory

  • Only four relational models are bases of all social behavior

  • Models are generative

  • Models are pervasive

  • Models are universal

Communal sharing
Communal Sharing

  • no distinction between self and other

  • Need/ability based distribution of resources

  • categorical system

Authority ranking
Authority Ranking

  • hierarchical distinction between self and other

  • status based distribution of resources

  • ordinal system

Equality matching
Equality Matching

  • self and partner distinct, but on equal level socially

  • even (i.e., in kind) distribution of resources

  • interval system

Market pricing
Market Pricing

  • self and partner distinct but equal, although inequalities might result from behavior

  • market based distribution of resources

  • ratio system

Asocial null relationships
Asocial & Null Relationships

  • Alternatives available if persons interact with others without perceiving a relationship

  • Asocial = awareness and use of relational models for ends unrelated or antithetical to relationship

  • Null = failure to perceive other as potential relationship partner

Elementary features of relational models
Elementary Features of Relational Models

1) Models are morally obligating

2) Violations of models are sanctioned

3) Actualization of models intrinsically enjoyable

4) Models operate in disparate domains in diverse cultures

5) Models form an ordered set in terms of relations and operations that define structures

6) Models exist in more primitive mammalian and other animal life

Predictions regarding the universality of relational models
Predictions Regarding the Universality of Relational Models

1) Models emerge spontaneously regardless of culture (teaching)

2) Models are externalized (not internalized)

3) In novel situations, people use models to organize social life

Predictions regarding the acquisition of relational models
Predictions Regarding the Acquisition of Relational Models

1) Models are acquired in a predetermined sequence

2) Uses of newly acquired models are learned and fine tuned through experimentation

3) Much like language, acquisition of relational models independent of general intelligence

The role of culture
The Role of Culture

For any given relationship culture determines which relational model (or combination of models) applies to which specific relationship domain.