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Chapter 6 Consumer Behavior. Chapter 6 slides for Marketing for Pharmacists, 2nd Edition. Learning Objectives. Describe the steps associated with consumer decision-making. Delineate how each step influences the choices consumers make.

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chapter 6 consumer behavior

Chapter 6Consumer Behavior

Chapter 6 slides for Marketingfor Pharmacists, 2nd Edition

learning objectives
Learning Objectives
  • Describe the steps associated with consumer decision-making.
  • Delineate how each step influences the choices consumers make.
  • Discuss how risk, involvement, control, and expectations affect consumers’ decision-making.
  • Give a general description of the following models of health behavior: health belief model, theory of reasoned action, theory of planned behavior, transtheoretical model.
consumer patient behavior
Consumer (Patient) Behavior
  • Understanding consumer behavior is necessary in pricing, merchandising, advertising, personal selling, designing services, and so on.
  • It helps in knowing who, what, when, where, and how to market.
    • e.g., diabetes management clinic
slide4

The aim of marketing is to know and understand the customer so well the product or service fits him and sells itself.

Peter F. Drucker

frameworks for understanding consumer behavior
Frameworks for Understanding Consumer Behavior
  • Economic man
  • Social influences
  • Personal influences
problem solving
Problem Solving
  • Extended problem solving
    • New, high-risk, complex
  • Limited problem solving
    • Routine, low-risk
  • Determines attention and receptivity to information
slide8

Need Recognition

Consumer Decision Process

Information Search

Alternative Evaluation

Choice

Evaluation

slide9

Consumer Decision Process

Need Recognition

Prepurchase

Stage

Information Search

Alternative Evaluation

Consumption

Stage

Choice

Postpurchase

Evaluation Stage

Evaluation

consumer decision process
Consumer Decision Process
  • Need recognition (arousal, interest, desire)
    • Commercial
    • Social
    • Physical
  • Information search
    • Internal
    • External
consumer decision process1
Consumer Decision Process
  • Alternative evaluation
    • Cognitive versus emotional
    • Salient (important) versus determinant criteria
  • Consumption
    • Choice of vendor, channel of distribution, product
    • Decision rules: cutoffs, overall utility
  • Postpurchase
    • Satisfaction versus cognitive dissonance
slide12

How might pharmacists influence the decision process

for seeking treatment for diabetes?

Need Recognition

Prepurchase

Stage

Information Search

Alternative Evaluation

Consumption

Stage

Choice

Postpurchase

Evaluation Stage

Evaluation

risk e g diabetes
Risk (e.g., diabetes)
  • Financial
  • Performance
  • Physical
  • Social
  • Psychological

Dimensions:

severity and

likelihood

involvement i e perceived importance
Involvement (i.e., perceived importance)
  • Affects information search and processing and ability to be persuaded
  • Necessary for thoughtful behavior (extended problem solving)
  • Influenced by
    • Personal relevance
    • Object considered
    • Situation
customizing services to patient involvement e g diabetes
Customizing services to patient involvement (e.g., diabetes)
  • Assess patient involvement
    • For highly involved, greater information can be provided.
    • For less highly involved, provide simple, short, repetitive messages.
  • Enhance involvement through education and reducing distractions.

Tell me and I'll forget. Show me and I'll remember. Involve me and I'll understand.

  • Confucius (famous Chinese marketer)
perception of control
Perception of control
  • Lack of perceived control leads to stress and frustration.
  • Enhance feelings of control
    • Provide information about what is going on.
    • Give control through self-service and choice.
    • Make service experiences as consistent and predictable as possible.
health behavior models

Health Behavior Models

For counseling

and intervention strategies

commonly used in pharmacy practice

health belief model
Health belief model
  • Patient health behaviors are determined by
    • The degree to which a patient perceives a particular health threat
    • Whether the patient believes the particular behavior will reduce the threat.

Kehoe WA, Katz RC. Health Behaviors and Pharmacotherapy. Ann Pharmacotherapy 1998;32:1076-1085.

Ried LD, Christensen DB. A Psychosocial Perspective in the Explanation of Patients’ Drug-Taking Behavior. Soc Sci Med 1988; 27(3): 277-285.

health belief model1
Health belief model
  • Actions are directly related to
    • A patient’s feelings of susceptibility to a disease
    • Concern about worsening of the disease
    • A belief that the disease will get better with treatment
    • The patient’s assessment of risks versus benefits
  • Stimulus that motivates the patient
      • Internal: signs and symptoms of disease
      • External: personal pressure from family or medical professionals

Nagy VT, Wolfe GR. Cognitive Predictors of Compliance in Chronic Disease Patients. Med Care 1984; 22:912-921.

Kehoe WA, KatzRC. Health Behaviors and Pharmacotherapy. Ann Pharmaco 1998;32:1076-1085.

health belief model2
Health belief model

Age, Sex, Ethnicity

Personality, Knowledge

Socioeconomics

Perceived

Susceptibility

or Seriousness

Likelihood of

Taking Action

Perceived

Threat

  • Cues to Action
  • Education
  • Symptoms
  • Media
theory of reasoned action
Theory of reasoned action

Beliefs,

Importance

Attitude

Intentions

To Act

Actual

Behavior

Subjective

Norm

Expectations,

Importance

transtheoretical model
Transtheoretical model
  • States that people progress through five stages when changing a behavior.
  • These stages identify one’s motivational and behavioral readiness for change.
  • The success of behavior-changing strategies depends on what stage a person is in.
stages of change
Stages of change
  • Stage 1: Precontemplation
    • No intention of changing in foreseeable future
    • Efforts to get person to make immediate change will likely meet resistance
  • Stage 2: Contemplation
    • Intention to change in foreseeable future but unwilling to act yet
stages of change1
Stages of change
  • Stage 3: Preparation
    • Have begun to take small steps toward change in very near future
  • Stage 4: Action
    • Have successfully made change in past 6 months
  • Stage 5: Maintenance
    • Change more than 6 months ago
decisional balance
Decisional balance

Pros

(Benefits of change)

Cons

(Negatives of change)

Pre-contemplators and Contemplators

decisional balance1
Decisional balance

Cons

(Negatives of change)

Pros

(Benefits of change)

, Action, Maintenance Preparation

important points
Important points
  • On average, 40-60% of people in the process of change are in stage 1 or 2.
  • Many change efforts attempt to change behavior of people who are not ready to take action (stage 1 or 2). The result is resistance and relapse.
making a change
Making a change
  • In stages 1 and 2, focus is on negatives of change. Increasing the likelihood of change requires
    • Increasing the perceived benefits of change
    • Increasing people’s confidence that they are able to change.
  • Stages 3 to 5 consist primarily of managing temptations to slide back into previous undesirable behavior.
summary
Summary
  • Understanding patient behavior is essential to influencing them.
  • Models of consumer behavior can help pharmacists increase medication adherence, change smoking behavior, communicate health messages, design services, and influence physician prescribing.