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Consumer Behavior. Professor Lawrence Feick University of Pittsburgh. Outline. Consumer decision process Interpersonal influences on consumer behavior Personal influences on consumer behavior Organizational buying. Consumer decision process. Personal Influences on Buyer Behavior.

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Consumer Behavior

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    Presentation Transcript
    1. Consumer Behavior Professor Lawrence Feick University of Pittsburgh

    2. Outline • Consumer decision process • Interpersonal influences on consumer behavior • Personal influences on consumer behavior • Organizational buying

    3. Consumer decision process Personal Influences on Buyer Behavior Personal Influences on Buyer Behavior Purchase decision & action Evaluation of alternatives Problem recognition Information search Post purchase Interpersonal Influences on Buyer Behavior

    4. Problem recognition • Triggered by • external inputs: car breaks down, pass a bakery, see an ad for a computer • internal inputs: hunger, thirst, etc..

    5. Information search • Internal information sources: memory for brands, attributes, importance weights • External information sources: • company sponsored sources: ads, brochures, direct mail, salesperson, etc. • experiential sources: in-store trial • independent sources: evaluation and enthusiast magazines • personal sources: Uncle Bob

    6. Evaluation of alternatives • Needed to evaluate: • set of brands and attributes • brand performance on attributes • attribute importances • process for combining brand and attribute information

    7. Consider: choice of a car

    8. Car choice: often a staged process • Stage 1: Narrow the set of all alternatives (in US, hundreds of brands) to a smaller consideration (also called evoked) set • often done on basis of meeting the threshold on one or a few attributes (noncompensatory) • Stage 2: Choose the best alternative from the consideration set • often done comparing the “weighted average scores” across cars (linear-compensatory)

    9. Example: stage 1 • Individual narrows choice to (forms consideration set that includes) small sedans based on objectives, price range, operating costs, etc

    10. Example: stage 2 • Choosing a best alternative from the consideration set • Formation of a brand by attribute matrix

    11. Brand by attribute matrix: cars

    12. Bob & Mary’s attribute weights for cars

    13. Mary’s total scores for cars

    14. Bob’s total scores for cars

    15. Purchase decision (choice) • Outcome of evaluation: • preferred brand or brands

    16. Question: What do you do • ...if you are Hyundai and a segment that you want to attract thinks like Mary?

    17. Purchase action • Impact of budget constraints • Impact of availability of product • Impact of immediacy of need • Impact of point of purchase: • presentation on shelf, displays, packaging, salesperson, price specials

    18. Postpurchase • Does the product meet expectations? • Does the product perform satisfactorily? • Dissatisfaction if either is no

    19. Limited Problem Solving Cola Routinized Response Behavior Some thoughts on consumer thinking: how much thought? Extended Problem Solving

    20. Some thoughts on consumer thinking: where decisions occur • Planned decisions (the brand-level decision is made prior to store visit) • specifically planned purchases • In-store decisions • generally planned purchases • substituted purchases • unplanned (impulse) purchases

    21. Planned and in-store purchases

    22. Influences on the decision making process • Personal influence • Interpersonal influence

    23. Personal influences • Needs and Maslow’s hierarchy • Perception • Attitudes • Learning • Self concept

    24. A focus on…needs • Needs: an imbalance between desired and actual states • Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

    25. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs Self Actualization Esteem Social/belongingness Safety Physiological needs

    26. Marketing implications of Maslow • For a brand to be considered it must satisfy some need • Hierarchical: lower needs met before upper needs • Countries, cultures, segments can differ in focus on needs

    27. Marketing implications of Maslow’s hierarchy(text: Table 8.1) PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS Products Vitamins, herbal supplements, medicines, low-fat foods, exercise equipment, fitness clubs Marketing approaches Quaker Oatmeal--”Oh, what those oats can do!” Boost nutritional drink--”Your body will thank you.” Kaiser-Permanente--”More people turn to us for good health.” Ginkoba ginseng--”The thinking person’s supplement.” Advil--”Advanced medicine for pain.”

    28. SAFETY NEEDS Products Car accessories, burglar alarm systems, retirement investments, insurance, smoke and carbon monoxide detectors Marketing approaches Allstate Insurance--”You’re in good hands with Allstate.” Ford Motor Company--”Only your mother is more obsessed with your safety.” Lysol Basin Tub & Tile Cleaner--”This is no place for germs.” Merrill Lynch--”A tradition of trust.”

    29. BELONGINGNESS NEEDS Products Beauty aids, entertainment, clothing Marketing approaches Carnival Cruise Lines--”The most popular cruise line in the world.” Sears Mainframe Junior Dept.--”Got to have the clothes.” Lady Foot Locker--”One store. Every woman.”

    30. ESTEEM NEEDS Products Clothing, cars, jewelry, liquors, hobbies, beauty spa services Marketing approaches Jeep--”There’s only one.” Movado Museum Watch--”The making of a legendary classic.” Bombay Sapphire Dry Gin--”Pour something priceless.” BMW--”The ultimate driving machine.”

    31. SELF-ACTUALIZATION NEEDS Products Education, cultural events, sports, hobbies Marketing approaches Nike--”If you let me play, I will like myself more.” Outward Bound Schools--”The adventure lasts a lifetime.” Danskin--”Not just for dancing.”

    32. Interpersonal influence • Culture • Reference groups • Opinion leaders • Family

    33. Reference groups • Groups whose values affect individuals’ behavior • Membership • Aspirational • Disassociative • Examples? Implications?

    34. Opinion leaders • Individuals who: • know about a product category • learn about new products earlier • provide information and influence decisions • Examples? Implications?

    35. Family • Key influence • Family lifecycle • incorporates age, marital status, presence of children • Key trends • increase in sharing of decision rights • changes in family structure • influence of children

    36. Family life cycle Young single Full Nest Empty Nest Solitary Survivor Newly Married

    37. Summary: what do we know? • Purchase decision process • Influences on the process • personal influences • interpersonal influences