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Chapter 6 Consumer Markets and Consumer Buying Behavior . “To be a bullfighter, you must first learn to be a bull. ” - Anonymous. © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th edition

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to be a bullfighter you must first learn to be a bull anonymous
“To be a bullfighter, you must first learn to be a bull.”-Anonymous

©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th edition

Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens

chapter objectives
Chapter Objectives
  • Name the elements of the stimulus–response model of consumer behavior
  • Outline the major characteristics affecting consumer behavior
  • Explain the buyer decision process

©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th edition

Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens

slide4

Consumer Buying Behavior

  • Consumer buying behavior refers to the buying behavior of final consumers – individuals & households who buy goods and services for personal consumption
  • The central question for marketers is: “How do consumers respond to various marketing efforts the company might use?”

©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th edition

Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens

five premises of consumer behavior
Five Premises of Consumer Behavior
  • Consume behavior is purposeful and goal oriented
  • The consumer has free choice
  • Consumer behavior is a process
  • Consumer behavior can be influenced
  • There is a need for consumer education

©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th edition

Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens

a model of consumer behavior
A Model of Consumer Behavior

©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th edition

Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens

personal characteristics affecting consumer behavior
Personal Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior
  • Cultural Factors
  • Social Factors
  • Personal Factors
  • Psychological Factors

©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th edition

Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens

factors influencing consumer behavior
Factors Influencing Consumer Behavior

©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th edition

Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens

cultural factors
Cultural Factors
  • Culture is the most basic determinant of a person’s wants and behavior
  • Subcultures are groups of people with shared value systems based on common life experiences and situations
  • Social classes are relatively permanent and ordered divisions in a society whose members share similar values, interests, and behaviors

©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th edition

Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens

social factors
Social Factors
  • Consumer behavior is influenced by:
    • Consumers’ groups
    • Family
    • Social roles
    • Status

©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th edition

Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens

consumer groups
Consumer Groups
  • An individual’s attitudes and behavior are influenced by many small groups
  • Types of groups
    • Membership groups
    • Reference groups
    • Aspirational groups
  • Opinion leaders

©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th edition

Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens

personal factors
Personal Factors
  • Age and Life-Cycle Stage
  • Occupation
  • Economic Situation
  • Lifestyle –a person’s pattern of living as expressed in his or her activities, interests, and opinions

©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th edition

Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens

personal factors1
Personal Factors
  • Lifestyle
    • Values and Lifestyles (VALS) framework
  • American Lifestyles
    • Believers (principle oriented consumers)
    • Achievers (successful, work-oriented people who get satisfaction from their jobs)

©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th edition

Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens

personal factors2
Personal Factors
  • Personalityis a person’s distinguishing psychological characteristics that lead to relatively consistent and lasting responses to his or her environment
  • Self-Conceptisthe complex mental pictures people have of themselves, also known as self-image

©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th edition

Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens

psychological factors
Psychological Factors
  • Motivation
    • Maslow’s Theory of Motivation
      • Sought to explain why people are driven by particular needs at particular times
    • Herzberg’s Theory
      • A two-two factor theory that distinguishes dissatisfiers (factors that cause dissatisfaction) and satisfiers (factors that cause satisfaction)

©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th edition

Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens

maslow s hierarchy of needs

Self Actualization

Esteem Needs (self-esteem)

Social Needs (sense of belonging, love)

Safety Needs

(security, protection)

Physiological Needs

(hunger, thirst)

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th edition

Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens

psychological factors1
Psychological Factors
  • Perception
    • Selective Attention
      • Consumers are constantly bombarded with information and will screen out stimuli
    • Selective Distortion
      • Messages to do not always come across in the same way the sender indented.
    • Selective Retention
      • People will forget much that they learn but will tend to retain information that supports their attitudes and beliefs

©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th edition

Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens

psychological factors2
Psychological Factors
  • Learning describes changes in an individual’s behavior arising from experience
  • A belief is a descriptive thought that a person holds about something
  • An attitude describes a person’s relatively consistent evaluations, feelings, and tendencies toward an object or an idea

©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th edition

Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens

buyer decision process
Buyer Decision Process

©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th edition

Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens

need recognition
Need Recognition
  • For the decision process to begin, a potential buyer must first recognize a problem or need
  • Can be caused by internal or external stimuli

©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th edition

Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens

information search
Information Search
  • Information can be obtained from:
    • Personal Sources
      • Family, friends, neighbors, and acquaintances
    • Commercial Sources
      • Advertising, salespeople, dealers, packaging, and displays
    • Public Sources
      • Restaurant reviews, editorials in the travel section, consumer-rating organizations

©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th edition

Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens

evaluation of alternatives
Evaluation of Alternatives
  • Products are seen as bundles of product attributes
  • Customers rank attributes and form purchase intentions

©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th edition

Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens

purchase decision
Purchase Decision

©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th edition

Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens

post purchase behavior
Post Purchase Behavior
  • The smaller the gap between customer expectations and perceived performance, the greater the customer’s satisfaction
  • Cognitive dissonance is buyer discomfort caused by post purchase conflict

©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th edition

Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens

best practices
Best Practices
  • Consumers often view price as an indication of quality
  • Dissatisfied customers may not complain
  • Employees must seek out consumer dissatisfaction

©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th edition

Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens

best practices in consumer markets and consumer buying behavior
Best Practices in Consumer Markets and Consumer Buying Behavior
  • What did these hotels do?
    • Pebble Beach Resorts
    • Yum Brands
    • El Questro, Western Australia

©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th edition

Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens

key terms
Key Terms
  • Aspirational group
  • Attitude
  • Belief
  • Brand image
  • Cognitive dissonance
  • Culture

©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th edition

Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens

key terms1
Key Terms
  • Family life cycle
  • Learning
  • Lifestyle
  • Membership groups
  • Motive (or drive)
  • Opinion leaders

©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th edition

Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens

key terms2
Key Terms
  • Personality
  • Reference groups
  • Role
  • Self-concept
  • Social classes

©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th edition

Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens