13 English Colonies Warm Up: Compare and contrast the reasons for settlement of Jamestown and Plymouth
Map Activity • Label the 13 colonies. • Color the middle colonies one color, New England colonies a different color, and southern colonies another color.
Notebook • #1 Notebook Title Page • #2 Unit One Title Page • #3 Unit One Warm ups • #4 Why History • #5 Prehistoric Cultures Book Notes • #6 Explorers Notes • #7 Colonies Map • #8 Important People of the New World • #9 Early English Colonies • #10 ACAPS Notes • #11 Puritans vs Pilgrims • #12 Thirteen Colonies Map • #13 Thirteen Colonies Notes
13 English Colonies • Split into 3 Regions • New England • Middle • Southern
What shaped us? Space – We had bunches of it. Wilderness – Not in Europe. Allowed us to have a different mind set of how to live. Newness – No history, no stuffy traditions that have to be followed. Isolation – We were far away from Europe.
Continue notes on #13 Middle and Southern Colonies
Colonies Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island & New Hampshire ReligionPuritans wanted to purify the church. Separatists (Pilgrims) wanted to move away. Industries Fishing, whaling, lumber, fur Agriculture Subsistence farming Society Began as church run and evolved into a gov. run. Lots of religion.
A. Charles II and New Colonization • Proprietary Colonies • Charles II owed people favors for helping him during a civil war • Starts Proprietary Colonies: grants of land to loyal friends • They would own the land and control the Colonial Government
B. Middle Colonies • New York (1674) • Charles II gives the land to his brother • Land was already claimed by the Dutch (New Netherlands) • NN becomes NY after English take it • No Representative Government
New Jersey • Was part of NY • Charles II’s brother, James, gives it to loyal friends • No Representative Government
Pennsylvania (1682) • Quakers settle in Penn • Believed in tolerance and equality • Set up a colony that tolerated various religious beliefs • Amish, Mennonites, and French Protestants came • William Penn was the sole ruler until 1701, when he sets up a representative government
4. Delaware • 1638: small colony of Swedes settle there • Later the colony was seized by England. • William Penn becomes the proprietor of an area along the Delaware River and bay. • Later became the colony of Delaware.
Colonies New York, New Jersey, Delaware, and Pennsylvania Religion Mostly Protestant (Germany) and Quakers in Penn. Industries Harbors and rivers used for shipping. Cattle and pigs. Mills for grinding grain. Agriculture Mostly grain – Wheat, barley and rye. Society Very tolerant. Leading city was Philadelphia. (Paved streets, fire department, library . . .)
C. Southern Colonies • Maryland (1632) • Set up as a haven for English Catholics being persecuted • Many Protestants came too, leading to clashes • 1649: Toleration Act is passed to protect the rights of all Christians to practice their religions
Carolinas • To attract settlers: • Representative Government • Religious Toleration • Hoped to bring more people to the colony • Southern Carolina: large land owners and slave labor • Northern Carolina: small farmers not dependent on slave labor • 1729: King makes them 2 separate colonies, NC and SC
Georgia • Started as a “buffer colony” between Spanish Florida and South Carolina • Debtors and poor crafts people were sent there • Trustees first controlled the colony • Set strict rules on land ownership, slavery, and personal behavior
Colonies Maryland, Virginia, N. Carolina, S. Carolina, & Georgia Religion Protestant No particular one. Industries No real industries. Agriculture Cash crops on plantations. Rice, tobacco, indigo, cotton. Once the nutrients were gone, move to a new field. Society Plantations set up classes. Slaves at the bottom and large plantation owners at the top.
A. Steps Toward Self-Rule • English Citizens? • Colonists claimed they were and that they got all the rights enjoyed in England • But the English Bill of Rights did not extend to colonies • Self Government and Unity • Massachusetts coined its own money • United Colonies of New England/New England Confederation was also formed
B. Salutary Neglect • Parliament in England • Does not deal with colonial policy • Board of Trade • Set up to handle colonial policy • Did not rule colonies very strictly • Colonists sent agents to influence the board
What is Salutary Neglect? • Edmund Burke coins the phrase “Salutary Neglect” • Means that the colonists benefit from being left alone • Colonial Governments gain some independence because England is staying out of its business
C. Colonial Governments in 1700s • Elected Assemblies • Many colonists saw them as a right • Set them up like the English Parliament • 2 Houses = Bicameral • Governor’s Council – Upper House • Elected Assembly – Lower House
Governors • On paper they had power but could not always back it up • Royal Colonies: Governor chosen by the King • Proprietary Colonies: Governor chosen by the Proprietor