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3 - ATTRIBUTION 4 - ATTRIBUTION - WEINER’S MODEL 5 - WEINER’S MODEL - LOCUS OF CAUSALITY, ABILITY, EFFORT 6 - WEINER’S MODEL - STABILITY, TASK DIFFICULTY, LUCK 7 - ATTRIBUTION 10 - CONTROLLABILITY - THE THIRD DIMENSION 12 - THE SELF-SERVING BIAS 15 - THE ATTRIBUTION PROCESS

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INDEX


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    1. 3- ATTRIBUTION 4 - ATTRIBUTION - WEINER’S MODEL 5- WEINER’S MODEL - LOCUS OF CAUSALITY, ABILITY, EFFORT 6 - WEINER’S MODEL - STABILITY, TASK DIFFICULTY, LUCK 7- ATTRIBUTION 10 - CONTROLLABILITY - THE THIRD DIMENSION 12 - THE SELF-SERVING BIAS 15 - THE ATTRIBUTION PROCESS 16 - BEHAVIOUR, ATTRIBUTION AND MOTIVATION 18 - ERRORS IN ATTRIBUTION 20 - LEARNED HELPLESSNESS (LH) 21 - LEARNED HELPLESSNESS (LH) - GENERAL, SPECIFIC 22 - LEARNED HELPLESSNESS (LH) - ATTRIBUTION RETRAINING INDEX

    2. the process of giving reasons for behaviour and ascribing causes for events example: the player played badly today because the weather was poor ATTRIBUTION

    3. WEINER’S MODEL has four attributions: ability effort task difficulty luck ATTRIBUTION • arranged in two dimensions: • LOCUS OF CAUSALITY • STABILITY • with a possible third dimension: • CONTROLLABILITY(not shown on diagram)

    4. LOCUS OF CAUSALITY is the performance outcome caused by INTERNAL factors under the control of the performer ability or effort EXTERNAL factors beyond the control of the performer task difficulty or luck WEINER’S MODEL • ABILITY • the extent of the performer’s capacity to cope with a sporting task • EFFORT • the amount of mental and physical endeavour the performer gives to the task

    5. STABILITY is the performance outcome caused by: STABLE factors fixed factors which don’t change with time ability or task difficulty UNSTABLE factors factors which can vary with time effort or luck WEINER’S MODEL • TASK DIFFICULTY • the extent of the problems posed by the task including the strength of the opposition • LUCK • factors attributable to chance • such as the weather or the state of the pitch

    6. SUCCESS explained by internal attributions FAILURE explained by external attributions FUTURE EXPECTATIONS related to stability if we attribute success to stable factors or if we attribute failure to stable factors then we expect the same next time ATTRIBUTION

    7. HIGH ACHIEVERS attribute success to internal factors and attribute failure to external factors LOW ACHIEVERS attribute success to external factors and attribute failure to internal factors the process of changing attributions is called attribution retraining Wikimedia commons - Russell Garner ATTRIBUTION

    8. FEELINGS ABOUT SPORT attributions affect pride satisfaction expectancy learned helplessness avoidance Helen Roscoe Photography ATTRIBUTION

    9. LOCUS OF CONTROL are attributions under the control of the performer or not? the locus of control dimension relates to theintensity of a performer’s feelings of pride and satisfaction, shame and guilt pride and satisfaction are maximised if success is attributed to internal controllable factors such as ability and effort then motivation would be enhanced CONTROLLABILITY - THE THIRD DIMENSION

    10. LOCUS OF CONTROL if success were attributed to external and uncontrollable factors (such as luck) and the fact that the task was very easy then satisfaction would be less intense and motivation less if failure is attributed to internal controllable factors such as lack of ability and lack of effort then the overpowering emotion would be dissatisfaction and motivation would be reduced CONTROLLABILITY - THE THIRD DIMENSION

    11. successful performers tend to take credit for success they do this by attributing success to their own overwhelminglyoutstanding qualities (natural ability, ability to respond to the competitive situation) thereby enhancing their feelings of pride and worth enhancing feelings of self-esteem Wikimedia commons/Charlie Cowins THE SELF-SERVING BIAS

    12. successful performers tend to blame external factors for failure failure is automatically attributed to avoidinternal controllable and stable factors (even if such factors may be true) this is the self-serving bias, people tend to give attributions to protect their self-esteem rather than look for true attributions which would reflect the reality of the situation Wikimedia commons/Michael Kjaer THE SELF-SERVING BIAS

    13. unsuccessful performers do not always attribute failure to external factors and therefore do not protect their self-esteem hence reducing motivation Wikimedia commons/jonnyr1 THE SELF-SERVING BIAS Neal Bishop - Notts County

    14. THE ATTRIBUTION PROCESS

    15. HIGH ACHIEVER LOW ACHIEVER motivation?high motive to achieve success low motive to achieve success low motive to avoid failure high motive to avoid failure focuses on pride on success focuses on shame and worry about failure attributionsascribes success to stable ascribes success to unstable internal and controllable factors external uncontrollable factors ascribes failure to unstable ascribes failure to stable external uncontrollable factors internal controllable factors BEHAVIOUR, ATTRIBUTION and MOTIVATION

    16. HIGH ACHIEVER LOW ACHIEVER goals adoptedadopts task oriented goals adopts outcome oriented goals task choiceseeks challenging tasks and avoids challenge, seeks very difficult competitive situations or very easy tasks or competition performanceperforms well in front of performs badly in front of evaluative audiences evaluative audiences BEHAVIOUR, ATTRIBUTION and MOTIVATION

    17. THE ACTOR-OBSERVER EFFECT this is the tendency for actors to attribute their own actions to situational or external causes (such as blaming the circumstances - weather, state of the pitch and so on) whereas observers attribute the same behaviour of the actor to dispositional or internal factors (such as blaming the ability or personal choices of the actor when facing tactical decisions in a game) the actor-observer effect is an example of an attribution bias ERRORS IN ATTRIBUTION

    18. THE ACTOR-OBSERVER EFFECT GENDER DIFFERENCES girls tend to have attributions consistent with those of low achievers boys tend to have higher expectations of success Wikimedia commons/Grant Williamson ERRORS IN ATTRIBUTION

    19. LEARNED HELPLESSNESS a belief acquired over time that one has no control over events that failure is inevitable a feeling of hopelessness LEARNED HELPLESSNESS (LH)

    20. LEARNED HELPLESSNESS (LH) GENERAL (GLOBAL) LH • a person attributes failure to internal or stable factors • applied to all sports • ‘I am useless at all sports’ SPECIFIC LH • a person attributes difficulties to internal or stable factors • applied to one specific sport • ‘I am good at soccer but hopeless at cricket’

    21. ATTRIBUTION RETRAINING low achievers need to learn to attribute success and failure to the same reasons as high achievers success to stable factors failure to unstable factors LEARNED HELPLESSNESS (LH) • this would raise the self-efficacy of the performer for his or her sport couldn’t be helped!!! - the track was slippy

    22. ATTRIBUTION RETRAINING this heading describes the process by which a performer is advised to change his attribution for poor performance a low achiever will tend to attribute failure to lack of his or her ability (internal factor) which produces the feeling of shame and low self-esteem and helplessness in the face of further situations which might produce failure ATTRIBUTION RETRAINING

    23. ATTRIBUTION RETRAINING helplessness in the face of further situations which might produce failure will produce the need to be trained to attribute failure to an external factor (such as the weather) which is the same as a high achiever which should produce a feeling of disappointment (rather than helplessness) hopefully this will initiate a feeling of determination and seeking out of further opportunities to improve hence improve motivation to succeed ATTRIBUTION RETRAINING

    24. ATTRIBUTION RETRAINING