chapter 14 forging the national economy 1790 1860 n.
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Chapter 14 Forging the National economy 1790-1860. APUSH. The Westward Movement. People began to move westward in large numbers Movement west was very hard Diseases Loneliness Particularly hard for women Frontier people were fiercely independent and individualistic. Westward Movement.

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the westward movement
The Westward Movement
  • People began to move westward in large numbers
    • Movement west was very hard
      • Diseases
      • Loneliness
      • Particularly hard for women
    • Frontier people were fiercely independent and individualistic
westward movement
Westward Movement
  • Reasons for westward movement were primarily economic
    • Acres of tobacco had ruined land in the east, leaving farmers with no choice but to move on
    • They would take their poor farming techniques with them
use of the land
Use of the Land
  • Ecological imperialism
    • The west was seen as land to be taken and used
    • Little thought was given to conservation of land or animals
      • Trapping was common; beavers
      • Wholesale destruction of the buffalo
appreciation of the wilderness
Appreciation of the Wilderness
  • At the same time the west was being exploited, some moved to save it
    • Sense of nationalism moved some to push for an appreciation of the American wilderness
      • George Catlin pushed for a national park
        • Was achieved with the establishment of Yellowstone in 1872
the march of millions
The March of Millions
  • By the mid-1800s, the population was doubling every 25 years
    • By 1860
      • There were 33 states
      • The U.S. was the 4th most populous country in the western world
irish come to america
Irish Come to America
  • In the 1840’s large numbers of Irish came to America
    • Potato famine cause massive starvation on the Emerald Isles
    • Were disliked by other groups
      • Had few possessions
      • Were Roman-Catholic
      • Voted as one massive block
      • Were prejudiced
germans come to america
Germans Come to America
  • Between 1830 and 1860, many Germans migrated to the U.S.
    • Were more educated than the Irish
    • Had some material goods
    • Were anti-slavery
    • Lived primarily in the Midwest
anti foreign riots
Anti-Foreign Riots
  • Massive influx of Roman-Catholics caused riots to break out in many large cities
    • The Catholics started their own education system to avoid the American Protestant educational system
      • Order of the Star Spangled Banner
        • Precursor to the Know-Nothing Party

Know-Nothing Party:

“The Supreme Order of the Star-Spangled Banner”

essential question
Essential Question:

How did the Industrial Revolution effect the United States?

  • The U.S. was slow to embrace the Industrial Revolution and the steam engine
    • Vast amounts of farmland and lack of a large labor pool inhibited the growth of Industry
    • Lack of capital necessary to build machines was also scarce
    • Great Britain had a monopoly on the textile industry
father of the factory system
Father of the Factory System?
  • Samuel Slater 
    • Immigrated from England with plans for textile machinery
      • Were memorized, as it was illegal to take the plans from England to another country
      • The ability to build machines, would end England’s monopoly
the cotton gin
The Cotton Gin
  • Invented by Eli Whitney in 1793
    • Affect???
    • Reduced the need for slaves to separate the cotton seed from the fiber by hand
    • Meant more slaves could be put to use in the fields to cultivate the cotton
    • Developed a “cotton economy” – King Cotton
      • South would import more slaves to produce the cotton
      • North would build factories to turn the cotton into textiles and ship the raw materials overseas
advances in manufacturing
Advances in Manufacturing
  • Interchangeable parts
    • Idea was the brainchild of Eli Whitney
    • Was hard to achieve, but possible by 1850
      • Led to the use of mass-production in factories.
  • Elias Howe 
    • Sewing machine 1846
    • Why did it boost to Northern manufacturing
    • Became the foundation of the ready-made clothing industry
    • Who perfected the sewing machine?

Isaac Singer


Samuel F. B. Morse

1840 – Telegraph

incorporation law
Incorporation Law
  • Prior to 1848, in order to incorporate a business an individual had to apply to the state legislature for individual charters
    • New York was the first state to pass laws of “free incorporation” making it easier to start a business
wages and workers
Wages and Workers
  • The new system of work, changed the relationship between the owners and the workers
    • Larger companies made work more impersonal
    • Factory work was less satisfying, more mundane
wages and workers1
Wages and Workers
  • Wages were low and working conditions were poor
  • Children were often employed in factories at extremely low wages
  • Labor unions were illegal until 1840, and even then were not very strong
  • Workday was limited to 10 hours by Van Buren
role of women in the economy
Role of Women in the Economy
  • Most working women were single
  • Married women spent their time at home, tending to family manners
  • Many single women were urged to go into teaching by women like
    • Catharine Beecher
    • Was seen as a better career than factory work
revolution in farming
Revolution in Farming
  • New machines made farming more profitable
    • John Deere invented the steel plow,(1837) that allowed the thicker western soil to be broken
    • Alex McCormick invented the mechanical reaper (1848)
cumberland road began 1811
Cumberland Road ( Began:1811)

Construction Completed?

  • Cumberland Road is completed in 1852
  • Clipper ships 
  • Carriedfewer goods
  • Moved at a much faster rate than traditional ships
    • Eventually replaced by?

Steamships - Why?

Just as fast and could carry more cargo

  • Clipper ships built in 1840’s and 1850’s
clinton s big ditch
Clinton’s Big Ditch?

How was the Canal built?


Results along the canal route?

erie canal 1820s
Erie Canal, 1820s

Effects of the Erie Canal beyond NY State?

  • Profitable farming in old NW
  • Growth of Great Lake cities
  • Disaster for New England farms – How?

Begun in 1817; completed in 1825

  • Railroads
    • Introduced in late 1820’s
    • Were initially opposed because of safety concerns
    • Would eventually be the most important form of transportation
  • Pony Express
    • Began with great fanfare in 1860 to carry mail from Missouri to California
    • Was deemed to be unprofitable and was ended after 18 months

The “Iron Horse” Wins! (1830)

1830  13 miles of track built by Baltimore & Ohio RRBy 1850  9000 mi. of RR track [1860  30,000 mi.]



Immigrant laborbuilt the No. RRs.

Slave laborbuilt the So. RRs.

the pony express
The Pony Express

Between April, 1860 and Nov,1861.

Delivered news and mail between St. Louis, MO and San Francisco, CA.

Took 10 days.

Replaced by the completion of the trans-continental telegraph line.

trails westward
Trails Westward

Between 1840 and 1860, more than 250,000 people travelled westward.

Main routes?

  • The advances in transportation were critical
    • It helped the development of a true U.S. economy
    • It bound the country together and created an interdependence that was not seen in earlier times



The results of

early 19c


in America?



the market revolution
The Market Revolution
  • How did the economy of the United States change?
    • Substance Ag  national industry & commerce
    • Increased mechanization & specialization
    • Will the gov’t protect rights of small business?

New Chief Justice:

Roger Taney 

New attitudes?