Chapter 14 Forging the National Economy 1790-1860
AMERICAN GROWTH AND PROGRESS • Population growth • 1800 = 5.5 million to 33 million by 1861 • 13 states to 33 states by 1861 • Expansion of cities • Flow of Immigration – 1830’s to 1860’s • Why? Potato famine and European problems • Irish • German 48er’s • Hated by “Nativists” • 3. Transformation of American Industry • Industrial Revolution – why? • American System • Sectionalism • Industrial pioneers
Westward Movement Americans marched quickly toward west very hard w/ disease & loneliness Frontier people were individualistic, superstitious & ill-informed Westward movement molded environment tobacco exhausted land “Kentucky blue grass” thrived
Population Growth from 1620 to 1860 5.3 million
City growth Westward expansionGrowth of cities and states by 1850
The March of the Millions • High birthrate accounted for population growth • Population doubling every 25 years • Near 1850s, millions of Irish, German came • Beginning in 1830, immigration in the US soared
Causes Event Effects Irish escape famine in their country Produced feelings Of nativism among Many Americans Settled mostly in urban areas of the Northeast U.S. experiences Huge influx Of immigrants. Know-Nothing Party Was started to prevent Immigrants from Holding office Millions of Germans arrived and settled in the Midwest
Irish Immigration Irish Potato Famine 1845-1849 Main ports of entry – New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Boston Irish were too poor to move inland and farm so they stayed in the cities Boston did not particularly like the Irish – catholic, illiterate, poor “No Irish need apply!” Ancient Order of Hibernians Benevolent society to help Irish Spawned “Molly Maguires” (miners union) Gradually improved and became active politically NY’s Tammany Hall, Irish political machine
German Immigration Most Germans came due to crop failures Germans better off than Irish, came west, many to Wisconsin A few were political refugees from collapse of democratic revolutions in 1848 German contributions include Kentucky rifle, Christmas tree, kindergarten, and abolitionists Some Americans were suspicious because they tried to preserve language, culture and lived in separate communities, and drank beer
IMMIGRATION • Settlements of Immigrants • Irish in Northeastern cities: New York and Boston • Germans would settle in Midwest
Early Nativism • American “nativists” feared 1840s & 1850s invasion of immigrants • Took jobs, grew Roman Catholicism • Catholics built their own schools, were #1 denomination by 1850 • 1849: Nativists form Order of the Star-Spangled Banner, developed into “Know-Nothing” party • Wanted immigration restrictions • Nativists occasionally violent, burned Boston convent (1834) • Philadelphia Irish fought back, 13 killed in several days of fighting (1844)
The “Know-Nothings” [The American Party] • Nativists. • Anti-Catholics. • Anti-immigrants. 1849 Secret Order of the Star-Spangled Banner created in NYC.
Know-Nothing Party: “The Supreme Order of the Star-Spangled Banner”
INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION • A shift from goods made by hand to factory and mass production • Technological innovations brought production from farmhouse to factories • Invented in Britain in 1750; smuggled to U.S. • Beginning of US Factory System • US slow to embrace factory system • Scarce labor • Little capital • Superiority of British factories
Resourcefulness & Experimentation • Americans were willing to try anything. • They were first copiers, then innovators. 1800 41 patents were approved. 1860 4,357 “ “ “
ELI WHITNEY The invention which changed the South, cotton and slavery. • Eli Whitney’s cotton gin revolutionized the cotton industry. • He is also noted for the concept of mass production and interchangeable parts by creating dyes for pistols and rifles. • Very important early pioneer in America’s industrial revolution.
Cotton gin invented in 1793 50 times more effective than hand picking Raising cotton more profitable South needs slavery more than ever for “King Cotton” Whitney Ends the Fiber Famine • New England factories flourish with Southern cotton
Effects Increased exports for the South Planters became rich Cotton Gin Increased demand for slaves
Eli Whitney’s Gun Factory Interchangeable Parts Rifle
The Northern Industrial "Juggernaut"
US FACTORY SYSTEM • 1830s, Industrialization grew throughout the North… • Southern cotton shipped to Northern textile mills was a good working relationship.
US FACTORY SYSTEM • Built first textile mill in 1793 in Pawtucket, Rhode Island. • Born in England on June 9, 1768 and worked in British factories. • Slater came to US to make his fortune in the textile industry. • Slatersville Mill was the largest and most modern industrial cotton mill of its day Samuel Slater was the "Father of the American Factory System."
Workers & Wage Slaves • With industrial revolution, large impersonal factories surrounded by slums full of “wage slaves” developed • Long hours, low wages, unsanitary conditions, lack of heat, etc. • Labor unions illegal • 1820: 1/2 of industrial workers were children under 10
Workers & Wage Slaves • 1820s & 1830s: right to vote for laborers • Loyalty to Democratic party led to improved conditions • Fought for 10-hour day, higher wages, better conditions • 1830s & 1840s: Dozens of strikes for higher wages or 10-hour day • 1837 depression hurt union membership • Commonwealth v. Hunt • Supreme Court ruled unions not illegal conspiracies as long as they were peaceful
US FACTORY SYSTEM The Lowell Mills • Americans beat the British at their own game, made better factories • Francis C Lowell (a British “traitor”) came over here to build British factories met up with Boston mechanic, Paul Moody • Together they improved the mill and invented a power loom that revolutionized textile manufacturing
Lowell Girls What was their typical “profile?”
Lowell Boarding Houses What was boardinghouse life like?
The Lowell SystemLowell, Massachusetts, 1832 • Young New England farm girls • Supervised on and off the job • Worked 6 days a week, 13 hours a day • Escorted to church on Sunday
US FACTORY SYSTEM Women & the Economy • 1850: 10% of white women working for pay outside home • Vast majority of working women were single • Left paying jobs upon marriage • “Cult of domesticity” • Cultural idea that glorifies homemaker • Empowers married women • Increased power & independence of women in home led to decline in family size
New Inventions: "Yankee Ingenuity"
steamboat Robert Fulton Samuel Slater Textile machine Mass production of textiles Francis C. Lowell Interchangeable parts Eli Whitney Samuel F.B. Morse Telegraph; Morse code