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  1. THE GREAT DIVIDE: • HUMAN RIGHTS VERSUS PREJUDICE & DISCRIMINATION • Prejudice: an adverse judgement or opinion formed beforehand or without knowledge or examination of the facts • Discrimination: This prejudice leads to unfair treatment of other people, disregarding individual merit

  2. FORMS ofDiscrimination: Gender: Sexism / Chauvinism Sexual: Homophobia Racial: Ethnocentricity Age: Prejudice Against the OLD Class: Bias against the poor Disability: Physically / Mentally-Incapacitated / HIV+ Foreign: Xenophobia

  3. UN Human Rights Declaration Dec ‘98 :(International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights ) • Proposals to outlaw: • Discrimination against foreigners/migrants. • Discrimination against persons with disabilities • Discrimination against women. • Discrimination against travellers / foreign visitors

  4. 1.Gender Discrimination • hatred against people based on their sex rather than their individual merits • in many patriarchal societies, females were viewed as the "weaker sex" • "reverse sexism" : the advancement of female power and dominance through suppressing men • 1960s: The sexual revolution saw a change in sexual morality and sexual behavior throughout the Western world. • UK, US, Canada & HK all set up laws to prevent sexual/gender discrimination • (See also “Glass Ceiling”, “Misandry ” & “Misogyny”)

  5. 2. Racial Discrimination • Racism is a belief or ideology that all members of each race possess characteristics or abilities specific to that race, especially to distinguish it as being either superior or inferior to another race or races. • Racism first appeared during Early Modern Europe, in Spain, and then during the 19th century, where "scientific racism" ideologies, which attempted to provide a racial classification of humanity, became very common. • Although such racist ideologies have been widely discredited after World War II and the Holocaust, the phenomena of racism and of racial discrimination has remained widespread all over the world. • (See also “Klu Klux Klan” & “Apartheid”)

  6. 3. Homosexual Discrimination • Rights of homosexuals have three components: • Right of having homosexuality decriminalised. • Right not to be discriminated in matters of employment, education, social security and other benefits. • Right for a legal recognition of homosexual relations through marriage or partnership contracts

  7. 4. Age Discrimination • In US, The Federal Age Discrimination in Employment Act is the major federal law that prohibits employers from discriminating against employees and applicants who are 40 years of age or older on the basis of their age. • The law says that an employer may not fire, refuse to hire, or treat you differently than other employees because of your age. • Age harassment involves unwelcome and offensive conduct in the workplace that is based on a person's age (age 40 or older). • Age harassment can include age-based jokes or comments, offensive cartoons, drawing, symbols, or gestures, and other verbal and physical conduct based on an individual's age. • In Japan, life-time employment is encouraged and older workers are given more social benefits and regard

  8. New guidelines on fair employment (From CNA, 3RD May ’07)

  9. 5. Class Discrimination • Class discrimination usually results in a widening income gap between the haves and have-nots. • Capitalism has often be blamed for this disparity, esp in government systems which were previously ruled by communism / socialism • Often, Advertising media highlight this gap in the way the market their products solely to the rich • Class structure is sometimes associated with racial groupings, namely in developed economies

  10. 6. Discrimination of Disabled Although many countries make physical provisions for disabled people, employment is usually limited for such people. Even those with learning abilities (like dyslexia) or nervous conditions (see Tourette’s Syndrome) would not often have equal opportunities in the workforce Some employers force the applicant to disclose if s/he is HIV+ for ‘medical reasons’ With a global culture dominated by images of beauty and perfection, disabled people may ultimately only be patronized into thinking they’re marginally accepted.

  11. 7. Discrimination of Foreigners • Linked to Racism (See Cronulla riots in Sydney) • Xenophobia often leads to prejudice against foreigners • Resentment towards expats for loss of employment and property • Some politicians use this in their campaigns proposing to protect local rights (see Pauline Hanson • Contempt towards foreigners who work in menial jobs (S’pore context) • Often blamed for causing a rise in crime rates

  12. Consequences of Prejudice & Discrimination : • Impedes social progress • Breeds internal resentment and civil unrest • Threatens national security • Affects Economic Growth • Hinders Globalization • Increases global conflicts • Leading to wars and genocide (intolerance  hatred  anger  violence)