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9: Designing the Questionnaire. Value of Questionnaires in Marketing Research. A questionnaire is a formal framework consisting of a set of questions/scales designed to generate primary data

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Value of questionnaires in marketing research
Value of Questionnaires in Marketing Research

  • A questionnaire is a formal framework consisting of a set of questions/scales designed to generate primary data

  • Questionnaire construction involves using a process that takes established sets of question/scale measurements and formats them into a complete instrument

Steps in questionnaire design
Steps in Questionnaire Design

  • 1: Confirm research objectives

  • 2: Select appropriate data collection method

  • 3: Develop questions and scaling

  • 4: Determine layout and evaluate questionnaire

  • 5: Obtain initial client approval

  • 6: Pretest, revise, and finalize questionnaire

  • 7: Implement survey

Questions and scaling
Questions and Scaling

  • Type of Question Format

  • Unstructured Questions

    • Open-ended format where

    • respondent replies in their

    • own words.

  • Structured Questions

    • Closed-ended format where

    • respondent responds from a

    • set of possible responses.

  • Quality of Question

  • Bad Questions

    • Unanswerable.

    • Leading or loaded.

    • Double-barreled questions.

Guidelines for evaluating the adequacy of questions
Guidelines for Evaluating the Adequacy of Questions

  • Use simple words; avoid technical words

  • Get the verbiage out

  • Avoid qualifying phrases (always, sometimes, never, etc.)

  • Ensure response categories are mutually exclusive

  • Ensure question and scale statements are meaningful to the respondents

  • Avoid arranging response categories in a manner that may bias responses

  • Do not double-barrel questions or response items

Questionnaire design
Questionnaire Design

  • Confirm the research objectives and data needs before designing the questionnaire

  • Include a general description of the study in the introduction section *

  • Ensure instructions are clear

  • Arrange questions in a logical order

  • Be mindful of coding needs when choosing response formats

  • The data amount vs. survey length tradeoff

Questionnaire design1
Questionnaire Design

  • Begin with simple questions and progress to more difficult ones

  • Ask personal / sensitive / demographic questions at the end

  • Avoid asking questions using different measurement formats in the same section of the questionnaire

  • End with a thank-you statement

Role of cover letters intros
Role of Cover Letters / Intros

Initial Contacting Device

Encourage Participation

Provide Study Information

Communicate Study’s


Improve Response Rates

Cover letters intros
Cover Letters/ Intros

  • Personalize letter

  • Identify sponsoring organization

  • State purpose and importance clearly

  • Promise anonymity or confidentiality

  • Clarify the general time frame of doing study

Cover letters intros1
Cover Letters/ Intros

  • Acknowledge reasons for nonparticipation

  • Provide time requirements and any compensation

  • Explain completion date and where and how to return survey

  • Offer advance thank you statement

Other documents used in collecting data

Supervisor instructions

Interviewer instructions

Screening forms

Quota sheets

Rating cards

Call record sheets

Other Documents Used in Collecting Data

Sample screening quota sheet
Sample Screening-Quota Sheet