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Stress. Babatunde Idowu Ogundipe M.D. M.P.H. Washington DC VA Medical Center. Stress: Definition. There are several definitions (here are 3): (1) Brains response to any demand. (2) State of disharmony, or threatened homeostasis.

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stress

Stress

BabatundeIdowuOgundipe M.D. M.P.H.

Washington DC VA Medical Center

stress definition
Stress: Definition
  • There are several definitions (here are 3):
  • (1) Brains response to any demand.
  • (2) State of disharmony, or threatened homeostasis.
  • This comes from fact that living organisms survive by maintaining immensely complex dynamic and harmonious equilibrium(homeostasis), that is constantly challenged or threatened by intrinsic or extrinsic disturbing forces or stressors.
  • (3) The mutual actions of forces that take place across any section of the body. Hans Selye.

thestressdefinition.com

physical and behavioral changes associated with stress
Physical and Behavioral Changes Associated with Stress
  • Behavioral Changes:
  • Acute facilitation of adaptive and inhibition of nonadaptive neural pathways.
  • Increased arousal , alertness.
  • Increased cognition, vigilance, and focused attention.
  • Suppression of feeding behavior.
  • Suppression of reproductive behavior.
  • Containment of the stress response.
physical and behavioral changes associated with stress1
Physical and Behavioral Changes Associated with Stress
  • Physical Changes:
  • Adaptive redirection of energy.
  • Oxygen and nutrients directed to the central nervous system and stressed body site(s).
  • Altered cardiovascular tone, increased blood pressure and heart rate.
  • Increased respiratory rate.
  • Increased gluconeogenesis and lipolysis.
  • Detoxification from toxic products.
  • Inhibition of growth and reproductive systems.
  • Containment of the stress response.
  • Containment of the inflammatory/immune response.
physiology pathophysiology stress response
Physiology/pathophysiology Stress Response
  • We explain the Stress response with The General Adaptation Response.
  • It contains 2 principal components:
  • (1) The Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH).
  • (2)The locus ceruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE)/autonomic (sympathetic) nervous systems.

yang-sheng.com

disorders associated with dysregulation of the stress system
Disorders Associated With Dysregulation of the Stress System:

Increased Stress System Activity

Decreased Stress System Activity

Atypical depression

Cushing’s syndrome

Seasonal depression

Chronic fatigue syndrome

Hypothyroidism

Obesity(hyposerotonergic forms)

Posttraumatic stress disorder

Nicotine withdrawal

Vulnerability to Inflammatory disease (Lewis rat)

  • Anorexia Nervosa
  • Melancholic Depression
  • Panic Disorder
  • Obsessive-compulsive disorder
  • Chronic active alcoholism
  • Alcohol & Narcotic withdrawal
  • Chronic excessive exercise
  • Malnutrition
  • Hyperthyroidism
  • Premenstrual tension syndrome
  • Vulnerability to addiction (rats)
stress and our overall health
Stress and our Overall Health
  • Sources of stress include:
  • (1) Routine Stress.
  • (2) Sudden negative change.
  • (3) Traumatic Stress
  • The body responds to each type of stress in similar ways but different people may feel it in different ways.

trivalleypsychotherapy.com

references
References
  • Chrousos, G. Gold, P.W. The Concepts of Stress and Stress System Disorders. Overview of Physical and Behavioral Homeostasis. (1992) JAMA. March 4; vol 267. No.9: 1244-1252.
  • www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/stress/stress_factsheet_ln.pdf
  • Mind/Body Health: Stress - American Psychological Association. Available at www.apa.org/helpcenter/stress.aspx.