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STRESS……. Objectives: By the end of the session the students will be able to- Define Stress Recognise physiological signs of stress Theories of stress Measure stress Discuss research into causes of stress. What is stress?????.

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Objectives:By the end of the session the students will be able to-

Define Stress

Recognise physiological signs of stress

Theories of stress

Measure stress

Discuss research into causes of stress

what is stress
What is stress?????
  • “A pattern of negative physiological states & psychological responses occurring in situations where people perceive threats to their well being which they may be unable to meet.”
  • R.Lazurus & S. Folkman (1984)
what is stress cont
What is stress cont….
  • There needs to event called a stressor e.g. exam,unemployment, long term illness.
  • When we feel uncomfortable there is a set of changes which are measured for signs of stress.
difficulties for using these measures
Difficulties for using these measures…..
  • Being measured – will have increased levels of arousal.
  • Difficult to use in less formal setting – wired up to machine in house.
physiological signs of stress gas
Physiological signs of stress. (GAS)
  • Seyle (1976) Animals react similarly to humans in variety of situations.
  • He developed theory called General Adaptation Syndrome
  • Defined as a non-specific physiological response to a variety of stressful stimulus.
general adaptation syndrome cont
General Adaptation syndromecont….
  • Stage 1: Alarm Reaction
  • Perceived threat, drop in BP, muscle tension, the body prepares for confrontation.
  • Stage 2: Resistance
  • Chemical production
  • Body keeps up defences, but becomes vulnerable.
  • Stage 3 : Exhaustion
  • Body begins to manifest signs of prolonged hormone secretion, in need of recovery e.g low blood sugar, kidney damage, low hormone levels.
evaluation of gas model
Evaluation of GAS model
  • Allows good insight into causes of stress related illness.
  • But still does not answer the question of why we perceive some events as threatening.
  • Overall what is needed is the person to be involved in the equation.
physiological ways of measuring stress
Physiological ways of measuring stress…….
  • Blood pressure (BP)
  • Inflated arm band
  • Breathing
  • Tubes around chest
  • Heart rate (HR)
  • ECG-electrocardiogram.
  • Sweating
  • Hormone levels
  • Blood/urine
psychological measures of stress
Psychological Measures Of stress.
  • Surveys/Questionnaires.
  • Both have strengths & weaknesses I.e Demand Characteristics.
  • Interviews.
  • Open-ended Vs closed questions.
  • Rich detail
  • Cannot generalise.
  • Behavioural Techniques.
  • Time on task
  • Obedience test- ????????
causes of stress
Causes Of Stress????
  • Heat
  • Discomfort in heat, add to tense situation.
  • Noise.
  • Unwanted sound, especially if unpredictable.
  • Crowding
  • Trains, travel, pubs.
  • Stressful Life Events
  • What are your most stressful memories?????
psychological signs of stress
Psychological Signs Of Stress.
  • Cognitive
  • Confusion/Distraction
  • Emotions
  • Low Levels of Mental Activity
  • Behavioural
  • Physical difficulties
  • Aggression
  • Slow movements
why is stress problematic to research
Why Is stress problematic To Research
  • Artificial setting.
  • Maybe physiologically aroused but not stressed.
  • Ethical concerns. ( Milgram what was wrong with this study.)