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Stress. Definitions of stress. Stress has been defined according to one of three theoretical models: A stimulus (“stress from the outside”). A response (“stress from the inside”). A transaction emphasising the relationship between the individual and the environment (the interactional model).

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Presentation Transcript
definitions of stress
Definitions of stress.

Stress has been defined according to one of three theoretical models:

  • A stimulus (“stress from the outside”).
  • A response (“stress from the inside”).
  • A transaction emphasising the relationship between the individual and the environment (the interactional model).
stress from the outside
Stress from the outside.
  • Stress is something which happens to us- we can list what is stressful and what is not.
  • Therefore we can list stressors.
categorizing stressors
Categorizing Stressors.
  • Personal Stressors
    • major life events that have immediate negative consequences that generally fade with time
  • Background stressors
    • everyday annoyances that cause minor irritations but have no long-term ill effects
  • Uplifts
    • minor positive events that make one feel good
categorizing stressors5
Categorizing Stressors.
  • Cataclysmic events
    • strong stressors that occur suddenly, affecting many people at once
stress from the inside
Stress from the inside.
  • Selye (1956, 1976, 1985) who developed the General Adaption Syndrome (GAS): a constant set of physiological changes when exposed to stress consisting of 3 phases.
the general adaptation syndrome
The General Adaptation Syndrome.
  • General adaptation syndrome (GAS)
    • Alarm and mobilization stage
      • become aware of the stressor
    • Resistance stage
      • preparation to fight the stressor
    • Exhaustion stage
      • negative consequences of stress appear
slide8

Critique

RE: Similarity in physiological reactions

"Nonspecific reactions“ need research to "prove" it's no more than degree (magnitude).

Individual differences are not explained.

Important to note that:

Prolonged Stress can have long lasting effects!

the interactional model folkman and lazarus 1984
The Interactional Model (Folkman and Lazarus, 1984).

Stressor

Secondary appraisal

An event occurs.

Primary appraisal

How do I feel about this?

How can I cope with this?

Stress if I cannot cope.

Outcome

stress

STRESS

PRIMARY APPRAISAL

1. Relevant to you?

2. Relevant but not threatening

3. Stressful...relevant AND threatening

SECONDARY APPRAISAL

The evaluation of personal resources to cope with the threat...

“Can I deal...?”

coping strategies
Coping strategies.
  • Emotion-focused coping
    • characterized by the conscious regulation of emotion in which people seek to change the way they feel or perceive the problem
  • Problem-focused coping
    • attempts to change the stressful problem or source of the stress
slide12

Emotion-FocusedSome people really do tend to“awfulize everything…”“It’s sooooo awful that…”“Did you hear about…How awful!!!”

One task is to CONTROL, MANAGE, AND DEAL with EMOTIONAL REACTIVITY

buffers against stress
Social Support - emotional - appraisal - informational - instrumental

Hardiness - commitment - challenge - Internal Locus

Optimism

Buffers Against Stress:
coping with stress
Coping with Stress.
  • Hardiness
    • a personality characteristic associated with a lower rate of stress-related illness
      • commitment
      • challenge
      • control
  • Social support
    • a mutual network of caring, interested others
explanation of the relationship between social support and stress
Explanation of the relationship between social support and stress.
  • Buffering hypothesis: protects individuals against the adverse effects of stress.
  • Direct effects hypothesis: provides individuals with a general resistance to stress.