Ivan Pavlov By : Hadi Yehia and Cindy Wong. Table of Contents. Biography Books His Theory: Classical Conditioning Classical Conditioning Explained How his theory relates to violence Comparison to theory Food for thought... Mmmm food. Biography .
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Table of Contents • Biography • Books • His Theory: Classical Conditioning • Classical Conditioning Explained • How his theory relates to violence • Comparison to theory • Food for thought... Mmmm food
Biography • Born September 14th, 1849 – died February 27th, 1936 • Pavlov was the first son of a priest and grandson of a sexton • He spent his youth in Ryazan in central Russia, where he attended a church school and theological seminary • He studied pharmacology and physiology in Saint Petersburg. He would go on to teach these subjects. Besides teaching, he was involved in medical research. • After receiving the M.D. at the Imperial Medical Academy in St. Petersburg (graduating in 1879 and completing his dissertation in 1883), he studied during 1884–86 in Germany under the direction of the cardiovascular physiologist Carl Ludwig (in Leipzig) and the gastrointestinal physiologist Rudolf Heidenhain (in Breslau).
Books • Psychopathology and Psychiatry by Ivan Pavlov (Jan 1, 1993) • Lectures on the Work of the Digestive Glands (Feb 22, 2010) • Conditioned Reflexes (1927)
Theory: Classical Conditioning While studying digestion in dogs he noticed an interesting occurrence; the canine subjects would begin to salivate whenever an assistant entered the room to feed them. Why and how was this happening?
Classical Conditioning • In his digestive research, Pavlov and his assistants introduced a variety of edible/ non-edible items and measured the saliva production that the items produced • He found that salvation is a reflexive process that automatically occurs in response to a specific stimulus and is not under conscious control But the dogs would often begin salivating in the absence of food and smell… Why?
Classical Conditioning • He realized that salivary response was not due to an automatic, physiological process but was a learned response • The dogs were responding to the sight of the research assistants white lab coats, which the animals had come to associate with the presentation of food • Unlike the salivary reflex to the presentation of food, which is an unconditioned response, salivating to the expectation of food is a conditioned response Now that he knew why this was happening he wanted to find out how this was happening
Classical Conditioning • He wanted to find out how these conditioned responses were learned so he set out to provoke a conditioned response to a previously neutral stimulus • He used food as the unconditioned stimulus and the sound of a metronome as the neutral stimulus • He found the following results
Theory Explained: Classical Conditioning Copy chart down in your own words!
How does this relate to violence? The media and pop culture hasconditioned us to handle situations aggressively and with violence within our households. “Family violence accounted for about 23% of all Police reported violent crime in 2007. Of the nearly 75 800 incidents of police-reported family violence, about 40 200, or 53%, were violent incidents perpetrated by a current or former spouse or common-law partner. Spousal violence was more likely to occur between current spouses or common-law partners than between former spouses or partners.” – Statistics Canada
How is the media influencing us? The media has conditioned us to handle conflicts through aggressive behaviour and it is being delivered right into the comfort of our own homes. Whenever we watch television we are bound to come across violent shows and news. “The average North Americanwatches more than 4 hours of TV each day (or 28 hours/week, or 2 months of nonstop TV-watching per year). In a 65 year life, that person will have spent 9 years glued to the tube. Furthermore, 98% of households have TVs, making television the single most important source of media in the lives of children and adolescents.” - A.C. Nielsen Company
Think of the children! The media also has a very negative affect on today’s youth. Their idols are based on violent characters and as such they imitate their violent actions in order to be more like them. “Prime time portrays 3-5 violent acts per hour and children's Saturday morning programming offers 20-25 violent acts per hour. According to a report from the American Psychiatric Association (1996), adolescents will have viewed 16,000 simulated murders and 200,000 acts of violence by the age of 18. Worse yet, the current portrayal of violence is highly graphic and realistic, offering anatomically detailed simulations of killings, maiming, and other physically violent acts. At the same time, violent acts go unpunished 73% of the time. The ‘good guy’ is often the perpetrator of violence, which sends the message that violence is justified and viable method for dealing with problems. – The Successful Parent
Comparison to Theory • At first when a child see’s violence their unconditioned response is fear and pain (Ex. Spousal Abuse) • When children watch educational TV shows (Baby Einstein) growing up they don’t act violently - Neutral response • When children are shown cartoons while watching TV that promotes violence as a justifiable method to resolve conflicts they are given mixed messages that lead to a skewed unconditioned response to violence (Pokemon) • Finally, the unconditioned response becomes so distorted that it turns from pain and fear of violence to it being completely acceptable which is the conditioned response were the child is able to see violence to others and not be affected by it.
How Does This All Relate? • The media has a very negative affect on today’s youth • We are all being desensitized and conditioned to accept violence by the amount of violence we see on a daily basis • Children’s idols are based on violent characters and as such they imitate their violent actions in order to be more like them • This all leads to more violence in schools, at home and in the everyday lives of children and adults
Food For Thought… • How much TV do you watch in a day? • How much violence do you see around you on a daily basis? • When you watch the news and are told that someone dies what is your first reaction? • Do you think we have been desensitized from death?