Learning Long lasting change in behavior due to experience.
Classical Conditioning • Ivan Pavlov • Studied Digestion of Dogs. • Dogs would salivate before they were given food (triggered by sounds, lights etc…) • Dogs must have LEARNED to salivate. Click above to see about Pavlov
Classical Conditioning • This is passive learning (automatic…learner does NOT have to think). • First thing you need is a unconditional relationship. • Unconditional Stimulus (UCS)- something that elicits a natural, reflexive response. • Unconditional Response (UCR)- response to the UCS.
Classical Conditioning • Next you find a neutral stimulus (something that by itself elicits no response). • You present the stimulus with the UCS a whole bunch of times.
Classical Conditioning • After a while, the body begins to link together the neutral stimulus with the UCS. • Acquisition
Classical Conditioning • We know learning takes places when the previously neutral stimulus elicits a response. • At this point the neutral stimulus is called the conditioned stimulus (CS) and the unconditional response becomes the conditioned response (CR).
Classical Conditioning • We know learning exists because the CS is linked to the UCS. • This is called ACQUISITION. • Acquisition does not last forever. • The moment the CS is no longer associated with the UCS, we have EXTINCTION.
Popular Classical Conditioning Examples See if you can identify the UCS, UCR, CS and CR. Classical Conditioning as portrayed in The Office.
Timing Matters • Delayed Conditioning: present CS, while CS is still there, present UCS. • Trace Conditioning: present CS, short break, then present UCS. • Simultaneous Conditioning: CS and UCS are presented at the same time. • Backward Conditioning: UCS is presented, then CS is presented.
Spontaneous Recovery • Sometimes, after extinction, the CR still randomly appears after the CS is presented.
Generalization and Discrimination Generalization Discrimination Something so different to the CS so you do not get a CR.
Classical Conditioning and Humans • John Watson brought Classical Conditioning to psychology with his Baby Albert experiment. This type of Classical Conditioning is also known as Aversive Conditioning.
First-Order and Second-Order Conditioning • First Order Conditioning. • Bell + meat = salivation. • Bell = Salivation. • Second Order Conditioning • (After first order conditioning has occurred) • Light + Bell = Salivation. • Light = Salivation.
Learned Taste Aversions • Martin Seligman & Sauce Bearnaise • When it comes to food being paired with sickness, the conditioning is incredible strong. • Even when food and sickness are hours apart. • Food must be salient (noticeable.)
Garcia and Koelling Study • Studied rats and how they make associations. • Some associations seem to be adaptive.