Famous Psychology Experiments. Ivan Pavlov. Classical Conditioning Experiments on dogs Smarty Pants: Nobel Prize - 1904. Dog. Classical Conditioning and Pavlov’s Dogs: Hypothesis. Observations: Dogs salivate when food is placed in their mouths Dogs salivate at mere sight of food
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Ivan Pavlov • Classical Conditioning • Experiments on dogs • Smarty Pants: Nobel Prize - 1904 Dog
Classical Conditioning and Pavlov’s Dogs: Hypothesis • Observations: Dogs salivate when food is placed in their mouths • Dogs salivate at mere sight of food • Hypothesis: Dogs can be trained, or conditioned, to salivate when exposed to an external (neutral) stimulus
Pavlov’s Methodology and Results • Present external (neutral) stimulus (bell) immediately before giving food. Order is important • Results: After a few trials, the dog salivates upon hearing the bell • Works with other stimuli as well
Classical Conditioning Components • CS-Conditioned Stimulus • Learned trigger (initially neutral) • UCS- Unconditioned Stimulus • Automatically triggers a response • UCR- Unconditioned Response • Naturally occurring response • CR- Conditioned Response • Learned response
Altoid Theory – The Office • After viewing the clip be able to identify the components of classical conditioning.
Pavlov’s Conclusions Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) Conditioned Response (CR) Conditioned Stimulus (CS) Unconditioned Response (UCR) because of because of
Continuing Pavlov’s Experiment • Acquisition • Learning the pairing CS+ UCS • Making the association • Extinction • Represses CR (not eliminated) • Spontaneous Recovery • After extinction, time passes, recurring of the CR w/o UCS • Generalization • CR to stimuli that are similar • Discrimination • CR to a particular stimulus only Other Aspects of Classical Conditioning
John Watson and Rosalie Rayner: Hypothesis, Methodology, Results • Conditioned fear into an infant • After a few tries, Albert was afraid of the rat • Presented a rat immediately followed by a loud noise, startling the baby + = • Albert generalized his fears to other furry objects
Mary Cover Jones • Colleague of Watson • Deconditioned 3-year-old Peter from his fears by gradually moving a rabbit (and other things) closer to him while he was eating DAY 1 DAY 2 DAY 3
B.F. Skinner and Operant Conditioning • Classical conditioning involves an automatic response to a stimulus • Operant conditioning involves learning how to control one’s response to elicit a reward or avoid a punishment
The “Skinner Box”: Skinner’s Hypothesis, Methodology, and Results • Rats placed in “Skinner boxes” • Shaped to get closer and closer to the bar in order to receive food • Eventually required to press the bar to receive food • Food is a reinforcer