Tobacco Mr. Korn Health Grade 10
Objectives: • Identify three factors that influence teens’ decisions about tobacco use • Describe the various forms of tobacco products. • Look at the warm-up on page 400: • What does the graph reveal about the popularity of smoking among high school students? • Why is smoking less popular with teens?
Teens and Tobacco • Why Teens Use Tobacco • Influence of Friends • If your friends smoke you are more likely to smoke • Become addicted when started smoking in their teens • Influence of Family • Mom, Dad, Brother Sister • Children of smokers are more likely to smoke • Influence of Media • Past – Pro Tobacco use commercials • Present – Banned commercials for 30 years, Anti tobacco commercials • How are these influences different from the influences for Alcohol?
Teens and tobacco • Tobacco Products • Products that are smoked • Cigarettes– most common used • Bidis– from India – cigarette like tobacco rolled in a leaf tied with a string • Kreteks– from Indonesia – ground clove – alters cigarette’s flavor and numb the lungs • Cigar and Pipe – less processed but more nicotine than a cigarette • Smokeless Tobacco – also known as “spit” or “spitting tobacco” • Chewing Tobacco – “dip” or “chew” ground tobacco leaves mixed with flavorings, preservatives, and other chemicals. • Snuff - finely ground powdered tobacco – snorted, placed between lower lip and teeth
Chemicals in Tobacco Products • Homework: • Journal Writing: • Where do you think that most teens get their information about tobacco products? • How factual do you think this information is?
Nicotine and the Body • Stimulants – are drugs that increase the activity of the nervous system. • Smokers – nicotine enters the blood through the lungs • Smokeless Tobacco – enters the blood through the lining of the mouth and gums • Once in the blood nicotine reaches the brain within seconds • Once in the brain nicotine take the place of certain neurotransmitters affecting breathing, movement, learning memory, mood, and appetite
Nicotine and the Body Cont. • Nicotine’s Short-term Effects: • Increased heart rate • Increased blood-pressure • Changes in the brain that may lead to addiction • First timers may experience rapid pulse, clammy skin, nausea, and dizziness • In frequent users it stimulates the area of the brain responsible for reward and pleasure. • Nicotine Addiction: • Begin to rely on it for feelings of alertness and pleasure • Develop tolerance • Irritable or anxious
Nicotine and the Body cont. • Psychological Dependence • Cope with stressful situations • Social situations such as hanging with friends • Nicotine Withdrawal • Headaches • Irritability • Difficulty sleeping • Inability to concentrate • Intense nicotine cravings • May begin as soon as 30 after last dose of nicotine
Class discussion • Have you ever observed someone experiencing nicotine withdrawal? Describe his or her behavior.
Other Dangerous Chemicals • Contains more than 4,000 chemicals • Most dangerous substances are tar and carbon monoxide • Look at Figure 5 on page 408: • Acetone – nail polish remover • Formaldehyde – embalming fluid • Stearic acid – candle wax • Cadmium – batteries • Arsenic – weed killer • Naphthalene - mothballs
Tar • Dark sticky substance that forms when tobacco burns • Short Term Effects • Brown stains on fingers and teeth • Smelly hair and clothes • Bad breath • Paralysis of cilia lining the airways • Increased number of respiratory infections, such as cold and the flu • Impaired lung function, which leads to reduced athletic ability • Long Term Effects • Contains carcinogens which are cancer-causing agents • Respiratory system to no longer function
Carbon Monoxide • When inhaled it binds to hemoglobin molecules in red blood cells in place of oxygen causing less oxygen to be transported that the body needs • Breathing and heart rate increase to make up for less oxygen causing damage to the cardiovascular system over time.
Chemicals in Smokeless Tobacco • Same chemicals as smoking tobacco • With each chewing tobacco a user absorbs 2.5 times more nicotine than a person who smokes one cigarette • Snuff user absorbs 2 times more nicotine than a person who smokes one cigarette • Causes: • Cancer • Stained teeth • Bad breath and drooling • Receding gums and tooth decay.
Objectives • Students will be able to describe the long-term health risks of tobacco use • Students will be able to identify the long-term risks of exposure to secondhand smoke. • Students will be to examine how smoking by a pregnant woman can affect her baby. • DO NOW: • Look at the warm-up on page 410. Read the statements and try to decide which one is false. Then Explain why you gave the answer you did.
Risks of Tobacco use • With every dose of tobacco, users increase their risk of developing respiratory diseases, cardiovascular disease, and several different forms of cancer. • Cigarette smoke is responsible for over 400,000 deaths in the US alone. • Homework: • What warning label would you put on cigarette packages? Why? • How do you think smoking would affect your ability to stay active as you age? • Describe how you feel when you are exposed to secondhand smoke.
Respiratory Diseases • Smoker’s Cough – is the result of damage caused by tar. • Cilia is a hair like extensions that line the respiratory tract. Cilia move in a sweeping motion and push mucus and particles away from the lungs toward the throat to be swallowed. • Tar will stick to the Cilia preventing them from moving and will damage them over time. • It also irritates the lining of the bronchi. Bronchi are tubes that carry air between the trachea and the lungs. The bronchi then become inflamed which restricts air from being carried.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (cpod) • A disease that results in a gradual loss of lung function. • Develops slowly but effects are severe. • Two types are Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema: • Chronic Bronchitis – the airways are constantly inflamed, over time mucus-producing cells increase in size and number causing more and more mucus. • Emphysema – a disorder in which alveoli in the lungs can no longer function properly, lose shape and elasticity causing less oxygen to get in and less carbon dioxide gets out. Always short of breath.
TREATMENTS OF COPD • Responsible for 90% of COPD deaths, no cure but quitting smoking will prevent symptoms from getting worse. • Focus on relieving symptoms and slowing progress of disease • Also includes medications that open airways, breathing exercises, oxygen treatments, and in severe cases, lung transplants
Cardiovascular Disease • Diseases of the heart and blood vessels • Kills about 138,000 smokers in the US every year • 2-3 times more likely to have a heart attack than a nonsmoker • Doubles a person’s chances of suffering a stroke • 10 times more likely to develop circulation problems in blood vessels that bring blood to the stomach, kidneys, legs and feet • Nicotine, tar, carbon monoxide force the cardiovascular system to work harder than usual. • Chemicals also increase blood cholesterol levels and promote atherosclerosis which is thickening and hardening of artery walls • Nicotine increases the chances blood to clot
Cancer • Lung Cancer – leading cause of death, more than 85% of all deaths caused by lung cancer are related to smoking, by time most lung cancers are diagnosed its to late. Only 15% of patients with lung cancer survive for more than 5 years. • Oral Cancer – cancer of the mouth, tongue, and throat, 90% occur in people who use or have used tobacco, higher rate than lung to survive, however surgery to remove may be disfiguring. May develop white spots on tongue or lining of their mouths called leukoplakia. • Other Cancers – esophagus, larynx, stomach, pancreas, kidney, bladder and blood
Secondhand smoke • Mainstream smoke – exhaled from a smokers lungs • Sidestream smoke - smoke that goes into the air directly from the cigarette • Secondhand smoke – combination of mainstream and sidestream smoke. Also called environmental tobacco smoke
Dangers of secondhand smoke • Long-term exposure can cause cardiovascular disease, many respiratory problems, and cancer • Increases the risk of sudden heart attack by 30% • Causes close to 40,000 deaths from heart attack and lung cancer • 300,000 respiratory infections in children younger than 18 months. • More likely to develop allergies and asthma • Asthma symptoms are worse than children who are not exposed • Inhaling can cause long-lasting ear infections – a leading cause of hearing loss
Avoiding secondhand smoke • Ask smokers not to smoke around you • Be firm when informing guests that they cannot smoke in your home or car • In restaurants, always sit in no-smoking areas
Tobacco use and pregnancy • Pregnant women who smoke put their babies at a risk • Babies on average come out weighing six ounces less than babies of nonsmokers. • Low birth weight is a risk factor for many problems that could affect a baby through-out their lives. • Cerebral Palsy • Sigh Impairment • Hearing Problems • Learning Difficulties • Higher rates of miscarriages, premature births, and still births also higher risk of SIDS, sudden infant death syndrome, • SIDS – when a seemingly healthy baby dies • Produce less smoke and nicotine in milk can cause vomiting and diarrhea.
Saying NO TO TOBACCO • Objectives: • Students will be able to examine how refusal skills will help you stick with your decision not to use tobacco. • Students will be able to describe the benefits of quitting tobacco use. • Students will be able to identify the most important factor for successfully quitting tobacco. • DO NOW: • Turn to page 417 in the book. Read the warm-up letter and then think of a response to his letter that will help with the decision he is facing. We will discuss as a classroom discussion.
Avoiding tobacco use • Say no!!!!!! • I do not smoke!!!!!!! • Be firm in your decision!!!!!!
Benefits of quitting • Cardiovascular Benefits • Immediately blood pressure lowers, heart rate returns to normal, • Over time circulation improves, risk of heart disease and stroke becomes similar to nonsmokers • Respiratory Benefits • Gradually cilia lining the air passages regain normal function, breathing becomes easier as tar and excess mucus and other debris clear the lungs • Psychological Benefits • Increased confidence, regain control of lives • Benefits to Society • Costs society $100 billion per year, healthcare pays for tobacco-related illnesses, damages and injuries from smoking-related fires and loss of earnings from disease and early death.
Changes in body after quitting smoking • First Days • After 20 minutes • Blood pressure and heart rate return to normal • Temperature of hands and feet increases to normal • After 6 hours • Oxygen and carbon monoxide levels return to normal • After 24 hours • Risk of sudden heart attack decreases • After 48 hours • Senses of smell and taste start to improve
Changes in body after quitting smoking • After 3 months • Circulation improves • Lung function improves • After 9 months • Coughing and nasal congestion diminish • Respiratory infections are less frequent • Energy level increases
Changes in body after quitting smoking • After 1 year • Excess risk of heart disease is half that of a current smoker • After 5 years • Stroke risk is the same as a nonsmoker • Risk of mouth and throat cancer is half that of a current smoker • After 10 years • Lung cancer death rate is about half the rate of a current smoker • Life expectancy is comparable to a nonsmoker
TIPS FOR QUITTING • 1. Make a list of the reasons why you quit. • 2. Throw away all tobacco products and anything that reminds you of tobacco use, such as ashtrays. • 3. Do little things to change your daily routine, such as sitting in a different seat at the kitchen table. • 4. Tell your family and friends that you have quit so that they can be there for support. • 5. Avoid being around people who use tobacco. • 6. Put aside the money you save. Reward yourself with a present. • 7. Exercise or call a friend to take your mind off smoking.
Getting Help • Booklets and pamphlets from health organizations • Contact American Lung Association or American Cancer Society for tips on quitting • Attend local workshops, support groups • Counseling over the phone or online • Local hospital or healthcare facilities • Ask health care professional where to get help
Nicotine Substitutes • Most common are NICOTINE GUM and NICOTINE PATCHES • Nasal sprays and inhalers are also available • Still only the first step in the program. They still expose their bodies to nicotine. • Never should be used with tobacco products