Definitions • A cancer-causing substance. • The addictive drug found in tobacco leaves. • A colorless, odorless, and poisonous gas. • A substance that causes physiological or psychological dependence. • Thickened, white, leathery spots on the inside of the mouth that can develop into oral cancer.
Health Risks of Tobacco Smoke • Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)- or secondhand smoke, is air that has been contaminated by tobacco smoke. • ETS is composed of mainstream smoke, the smoke exhaled from the lungs of a smoker. • Sidestream smoke is the smoke from the burning end of a cigarette, pipe, or cigar.
Health Risks of Tobacco Smoke • Since mainstream smoke has been exhaled by a smoker, it contains lower concentrations of carcinogens, nicotine, and tar. • Sidestream smoke is more dangerous than mainstream smoke. • ETS from cigarettes, pipes, and cigars contain more than 4,000 chemicals. • Studies have shown that infants and young children who are exposed to ETS are more likely to develop asthma than their peers who are not exposed to ETS.
Nonsmokers Young Children • Secondhand smoke causes about 3,000 deaths from lung cancer every year. • ETS causes eye irritation, headaches, ear infections, and coughing in people of all ages. • Increases the risk of heart disease. • Children of smokers tend to have a higher incidence of sore throats, ear infections, and upper respiratory problems than children of nonsmokers. • Secondhand smoke can slow lung development. Children who live with smokers are more likely to have weaker lungs than children of nonsmokers. Health Risks
Three Actions That Have Aided Efforts to Curb Smoking in Public Places • Laws that prohibit the sale of tobacco to minors (18) are being strictly enforced. • Some states have successfully sued tobacco companies to recover the costs of treating tobacco-related diseases. • Community activities that promote a healthy lifestyle provide everyone with the opportunity to practice healthful behaviors.
Four short-term effects of tobacco use • Brain chemistry changes • Respiration and heart rate increase • Taste buds are dulled and appetite is reduced • Users have bad breath, yellowed teeth, and smelly hair, skin, and clothes
Health Problems Consequences • Chronic bronchitis • Emphysema • Lung cancer • Coronary heart disease and stroke • Weakened immune system • Costs to society • Costs to individuals • Legal consequences Health Problems/Consequences of Tobacco Use
Nicotine and the Body Stimulants are drugs that increase the activity of the nervous system. Once in the blood, nicotine reaches the brain within seconds. By mimicking neurotransmitters, nicotine affects breathing, movement, learning, memory, mood, and appetite. The major short-term effects of nicotine use are increased heart rate, increased blood pressure, and changes in the brain that may lead to addiction.
Nicotine Addiction Ongoing use of nicotine causes the body to develop a tolerance to nicotine. As tolerance increases, nicotine addiction develops. The time it takes to become addicted depends on several factors including genetics, frequency of use, and age. Studies show that teens become addicted faster and more intensely than adults. Psychological Dependence Tobacco use may become a habit used to cope with stressful situations. It may become associated with social situations.
Cigarette Advertising Strategies • An ad featuring a smiling, proud woman holding a cigarette has this headline: “The best choice for you-and your wallet!” • What is this ad’s strategy? Why is the ad’s message misleading? • An ad celebrating a brands 75th year features this headline: “75 years and still smokin’.” • What is this ad’s message? What is the ad’s unspoken message? Why is the ad’s message false?
Cigarette Advertising Strategies • An ad features an older woman saying, “Proper, decent women shouldn’t have fun.” A young woman replies, “Well, shame on me, ‘cause I really like to have fun.” • Who is the intended audience of this ad? How does the ad target this audience? What could be some consequences of using tobacco for the reasons suggested by the ad?
Cigarette Advertising Strategies • An ad for a slim cigarette shows a smiling, attractive young woman, with this headline: “The slimmest slim in town.” • Who is the intended audience of this ad? How does the ad target this audience? Why is the ad’s message false?
Nervous System • Increases activity level • Mimics neurotransmitters • Decreases some reflex actions • Activates the brain’s “reward pathway” Effects of Nicotine Cardiovascular System • Increases heart rate and the force of contractions • Increases blood pressure • Reduces blood flow to skin • Increases risk of blood clotting Respiratory System • Increases mucus production • Decreases muscle action in the lungs’ airways • Causes breathing to become more shallow Digestive System • Increases saliva production • Decreases the amount of insulin released from the pancreas • Increases bowel activity
Health Risks to Unborn Children and Infants • Smoking during pregnancy can seriously harm the developing fetus. • Nicotine passes through the placenta, constricting the blood vessels of the fetus. • Carbon monoxide reduces the oxygen levels in the blood of the mother and fetus. • This increases the risk of impaired fetal growth, spontaneous miscarriage and prenatal death, premature delivery, low birth weight, deformities, and stillbirths.
Health Risks to Unborn Children and Infants • Babies of mothers who smoked during pregnancy or who are exposed to ETS are more likely to die of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). • Infants exposed to ETS after birth are twice as likely to die of SIDS.
Reducing Your Risks • Try to establish smoke-free areas in the house or make a rule that smokers go outside. • If a smoker cannot always go outside, air cleaners can help. • If you are visiting a home in which someone smokes, try to stay outside or in a different room as much as possible.
Creating a Smoke-Free Society • When a smoker chooses to smoke, that person makes a decision that affects his or her health, and the health of others. • According to the Surgeon General, the only way to fully protect people from the damaging health effects of ETS is to prohibit smoking in public places. • One of the goals of Healthy People 2010 is to reduce tobacco use and the number of tobacco-related deaths.
Factors Reducing the Numbers of High School Students • Tobacco legislation • No-smoking policies • Family values • Positive peer pressure • http://www.michigan.gov/documents/treasury/TobaccoTaxEnforcementReportltrhead_178062_7.pdf
Four Strategies for People who Want to Quit Using Tobacco • Prepare for the quit day • Get support and encouragement • Access professional health services • Replace tobacco use with healthier alternatives
http://www.healthypeople.gov/ • http://www.michigan.gov/documents/treasury/TobaccoTaxEnforcementReportltrhead_178062_7.pdf • http://www.michigan.gov/taxes/0,1607,7-238-43542_43547---,00.html