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Chapter 38. Origins of the Cold War. Cold War. Was the political, economic, military and cultural conflict between the United States and Soviet Union which played out throughout the world. Yalta conference.

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chapter 38

Chapter 38

Origins of the Cold War

cold war
Cold War
  • Was the political, economic, military and cultural conflict between the United States and Soviet Union which played out throughout the world.
yalta conference
Yalta conference
  • Was the conference in 1945 between Stalin, Churchill and Roosevelt in which they agreed to collaborate in reforming europe after the war.
potsdam conference
Potsdam Conference
  • Was where Truman, Stalin and Atlee finalized the plan for the division of Berlin into four zones. It was at this conference where Truman hinted at the U. S possession of an Atomic Bomb.
un atomic e nergy commission
UN Atomic Energy Commission
  • Was a part of the United Nations established in hopes of regulating and controlling the development of Nuclear weapons throughout the world.
iron curtain
Iron curtain
  • Was the phrased used by Winston Churchill in a speech in Missouri to describe the divide between Western and eastern Europe
truman doctrine
Truman Doctrine
  • Was the idea to not try and defeat communism but to stop the spread of it in Europe and other parts of the world.
marshall plan
Marshall plan
  • It was the United States Plan for European recovery which offered aid for countries to rebuild their economies all the while buying American goods.
  • Soviet Union: Security concerns dictated the Soviet view. Stalin wanted a buffer zone of friendly communist states to protect his country, so he made Western Europe a Soviet sphere of influence. United States: the United States wanted Eastern european nations to determine their own forms of government. Truman believed that given free choice , these countries would pick Democracy.
  • In early 1946 Stalin gave a speech declaring that peace was impossible as long as capitalism existed. In response, American diplomat George Keenan encouraged the U. S. State Department to pursue a policy to contain Soviet expansion of Communism. Stalin’s refusal to allow free elections in Eastern Europe and to withdraw troops from Northern Iran in March 1946 increased U. S. concerns.
  • Stalin was setting up Soviet-controlled communist governments in Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia. Winston Churchill warned that the Soviet Union was cutting Eastern Europe off from the rest of Europe. The term Iron Curtain came to symbolize the political barrier between Eastern and Western Europe.
  • Experiencing grave shortages and the need to rebuild after the war, Britain told the United States it could no longer afford to help Turkey or Greece fight communist expansion. The United States responded with 400 million in aid to turkey and Greece and committed to helping European nations to rebuild.
  • The Truman Doctrine declared that the policy of the United States should be to support free peoples who are resisting conquest by armed minorities or outside pressures. Truman was hoping to stop the spread of Communism by sending aid and military equipment to countries fighting off Communism.
  • U. S. Leaders feared that dire conditions in Europe would give rise to political and social unrest, and that Europeans might look to communism to answers. Helping to rebuild European economies would be the best way to stop Communism, they reasoned , as well as to create markets for American goods.
  • In 1948, Congress approved 17 billion in Marshall Plan aid for Europe, to be spent between 1948 and 1952, giving an enormous boost to economic growth and prosperity. Is Eastern Europe, no nation took part in the Marshall Plan. Suspicious of U. S. motives , the soviets created the Molotov Plan for Eastern Europe.
  • The Cold War was a conflict between two super powers competing over different visions for the world. The Cold War never led to armed conflict directly between super powers. It was a war of words that used propaganda, diplomacy, economic and military aid and espionage as weapons.