chapter 38 n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Chapter 38 PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Chapter 38

Loading in 2 Seconds...

  share
play fullscreen
1 / 32
Download Presentation

Chapter 38 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

eve
174 Views
Download Presentation

Chapter 38

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Chapter 38 The Stormy Sixties 1960-1968

  2. JFK • 1961-1963= Camelot • New Frontier= foreign and domestic policy • Social programs (Peace Corps), national defense, space program, tax cuts • To the moon by the end of the decade! • In Europe, population pouring out of East Germany Berlin Wall August 1961 • Military strategy of Flexible Response

  3. President John F. Kennedy and His Wife, Jacqueline Bouvier Kennedy

  4. The Berlin Wall, 1961–1989The wall separating East and West Berlin stood for nearly thirty years as a hated symbol of the division of Europe into democratic and communist camps. East German soldiers stand guard as the concrete wall is constructed, November 20, 1961.

  5. Vietnam • Flexible Response= ratcheting up US involvement • US backed South Vietnam (Diem) unpopular oppressive, corrupt • Vietcong (National Liberation Front) with supplies from North Vietnam via the Ho Chi Minh Trail attack South Vietnam within • Kennedy sent “military advisors” • Promoted coup of Diem in Nov. 1963

  6. Vietnam and Southeast Asia, 1954–1975

  7. BackboneThe United States supports South Vietnam.

  8. Cuba • Bay of Pigs fiasco (April 1961) to overthrow Castro using Cuban exiles crushed without US air support • Pushed Cuba more toward USSR • Cuban Missile Crisis (summer 1962)= nuclear weapons in Cuba from USSR • Naval quarantine of island • Deal made to remove arms • Limited Test Ban Treaty and “hotline”

  9. Civil Rights • Freedom Rides= test segregated busing (continued on by SNCC) • Protection promised in Birmingham (beaten by police)= US marshals for protection • James Meredith in September 1962 attempted to integrate the University of Mississippi (barred by Governor Barnett) • Marshals sent in response to riots (2 dead)

  10. Hosing Down Civil Rights Demonstrators, Birmingham, Alabama, 1963

  11. Civil Rights • SCLC and King focused on Birmingham to desegregate • April 1963: King arrested after march (“Letter from a Birmingham Jail”) • Media attention because of brutality • Victory in Birmingham= proposed civil rights bill march on DC August 1963 to support (“I Have a Dream”) • Voter registration drives in South

  12. Martin Luther King, Jr., Addresses the March on Washington, August 1963

  13. LBJ • LBJ= New Dealer, balanced ticket in 1960 • Civil Rights Act of 1964 • Economic Opportunity Act 1964 $1 billion to antipoverty measures • War on Poverty spurred by “The Other America” by Michael Harrington 1962 • The Great Society= domestic agenda (better quality of life- Era of Liberalism)

  14. LBJ and Vietnam • Gulf of Tonkin incident August 1964= US navy ship fired on by North Vietnamese • Congress responded with Tonkin Gulf Resolution= “blank check” • Operation Rolling Thunder February 1965 • 1964 election: LBJ vs. Barry Goldwater (ultra conservative) • Easy victory of LBJ but broke Solid South

  15. The Great Society • New Deal-esque, some holdovers from New Frontier • Big Four Reforms- social reform, racial justice • Elementary and Secondary Education Act 1965, Headstart • Medicare, Medicaid • Immigration and Nationality Act 1965

  16. Voting Rights • 24th amendment= abolish poll tax, blacks still being denied right to vote in South! • Voter registration drive during Freedom Summer 1964 (100,000 student volunteers) • Selma Campaign with the SCLC and SNCC 1965 march to Montgomery • Hoses, dogs, tear gas all seen on TV • Voting Rights Act of 1965

  17. Vietnam Escalation • Retaliatory bombing raids and troops entering Vietnam 1965 Americanized war quickly • War Hawks= guard Vietnam or domino theory! escalation • US downfalls: no drive, not ready for jungle war, guerillas (VC) • US advantages: military and technological power

  18. Vietnam Escalation • Gradual change to opposition to war Living Room War • Increasing casualties, napalm, Agent Orange, search and destroy missions, entire villages massacred • General William Westmoreland= “win the hearts and minds of the people” • FBI- domestic spying on antiwar groups (Codename Cointelpro)

  19. Vietnam Escalation • Tet Offensive January 30, 1968 (turning point)= surprise attack by Vietcong • Casualties in Saigon and Hue • American confidence in a quick victory done credibility gap widened • Military leaders called for more troops!  50% of people felt war was a mistake

  20. 1968 Election • Democratic opposition in primaries to LBJ from Eugene McCarthy and Robert Kennedy- doves • March 1968: LBJ calls for end to escalation and was dropping out of election • Hubert Humphrey= Democrats, Richard Nixon (law and order)= GOP, George C. Wallace= American Independent party • Nixon= minority president

  21. Counterculture • Youth movement in 1960’s had roots in the Beat movement of the 1950’s (Allen Ginsberg, Jack Kerouac) • Free Speech movement at UC Berkley 1964 morphed into counterculture (hippies) • “tune on in, drop out” • Rebellion against tradition and establishment • Students for a Democratic Society (New Left) • Sexual revolution in 1960’s- birth control, Dr. Alfred Kinsey, gay/lesbian movement