Behavior. HAS 3150. Do People Choose?. Leading Causes of Death - 1900. Pneumonia and influenza Tuberculosis Diarrhea Disease of the heart Intracranial lesions Nephritis All accidents. Leading Causes of Death - 1996. Diseases of the heart Malignant neoplasms Cerebrovascular
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Behavior HAS 3150
Leading Causes of Death - 1900 • Pneumonia and influenza • Tuberculosis • Diarrhea • Disease of the heart • Intracranial lesions • Nephritis • All accidents
Leading Causes of Death - 1996 • Diseases of the heart • Malignant neoplasms • Cerebrovascular • Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases • Unintentional injuries • Pneumonia and influenza • Diabetes
Actual Causes of Death in 1990 • Tobacco (19%) • Diet/activity patterns (14%) • Alcohol (5%) • Microbial agents (4%) • Toxic agents (3%) • Firearms (2%) • Sexual behavior (1%) • Motor vehicles (1%) • Illicit use of drugs (<1%)
Purpose of the YRBSS • Focus the nation on behaviors among youth causing the most important health problems • Assess how risk behaviors change over time • Provide comparable data
Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System • Monitors six categories of health-risk behaviors among high school students • behaviors leading to injuries • tobacco use • alcohol and other drug use • sexual behaviors • unhealthy dietary behaviors • physical inactivity
Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System • Survey conducted by CDC • National survey, state survey, 16 local surveys -- summary
Smoking 82% of adults started as teens 50% were regular smokers before 18
Advertising Camel’s share before “Joe Camel” 0.5% After “Joe Camel” 32.8%
Advertising Industry spends $100/second
Mind mapping Acceptance Pressure Peer Group Escape Guilt Esteem Modeling Groupthink Maladaptive coping Boredom Cover pain Substance Abuse genetic Stress Pain Biological Spirituality Body modification Media Depression Society Movies Glamour
Resiliency Process Resilient Reintegration Comfort Zone Comfort Zone Disruption Recovery with loss
Spirit Core and expressions Affect/Emotion Creativity Wisdom Humor CHILD-LIKE NATURE INTUITION LOVE MORALITY NOBILITY Helpfulness Self-worth Confidence Purpose of life
Act out Feelings Guilt Act Out Path of Shadows
Act out Confidence Success Feelings Success Guilt Act Out Esteem Shadows to Spirit
STAGES OF CHANGE MODEL(Transtheoretical Model) Adaptation of Presentation by Dr. Brad Neiger, Assistant Professor of Health Education, BYU
Basic Tenets of Behavior Change • Behavior change represents a reciprocal web of biological, sociocultural, and psychological factors. • People must believe that they can change. • People change over time and they can learn and grow From unsuccessful attempts at change.
Basic Tenets of Behavior Change • Positive impacts from change can be more influential than the temporary satisfaction derived from the “problem behavior”. • People modify behavior most effectively when they see “change” in the context of factors that matter the most to them.
STAGES OF CHANGE MODEL (Transtheoretical Model) • Pre-contemplation • Contemplation • Preparation • Action • Maintenance
Not a ghostly chance for change PRECONTEMPLATION • There is no intention to change behavior in the foreseeable future (within six months) • Unaware or denial of problem behavior. • Hallmark-resistance to becoming more informed. • Feel coerced into changing. When participate do so because of pressure from others. • Tend to be defensive about habits or behaviors.
CONTEMPLATION I wanna get out of this place! • Aware that a problem exists; seriously thinking about overcoming it, but not yet committed to taking action. • Considering changing behavior in the next six months. • Knowing where you want to go but not quite ready to do so. • Serious consideration of how to resolve the “problem” is the central element of contemplation. • Can remain stuck in contemplation for long periods.
I’m starting to move now! PREPARATION • Individuals intend to take action in the next month and have unsuccessfully taken action in the past year. • Have a plan for action, but can also have a fair amount of anxiety about change. • Often report some small behavior changes (looking at labels, buying stress management tapes, low fat ice cream instead of regular ice cream). • Although may have made minor or subtle changes they have not reached a criterion for effective action such as a goal to quit smoking or to exercise three times a week.
ACTION • Individuals modify their behavior or environment in order to change. • Movement in the correct direction is not preparation, it is action! • Objectives are those recommended by respected health agencies. It is not just any improvement, it is a high standard. • Stage can last from one day to six months. • This stage is the most demanding.
MAINTENANCE • Remaining free of the addictive or problem behavior for more than six months. • This is the stage in which people work to prevent relapse and consolidate the gains attained during the first six months.
PROGRESSION THROUGH THE STAGES OF CHANGE LIFE CYCLE
HEALTH BELIEF MODEL Individual Perceptions Modifying Factors Likelihood of Action (Factors in perception of illness) (Factors in probability of appropriate action) Past utilization of medical services Demographic variables (age, sex, race, religion,) Perceived benefits of preventive variables (personality, social action minus Perceived barriers to class, peer and reference group pressure, etc.) preventive action Structural variables (knowledge about the disease, prior contact with the disease, etc.) Importance of the threat to the individual Likelihood of taking Perceived threat of Perceived susceptibility to recommended preventive disease "X" disease "X" Perceived seriousness (severity) of health action disease " Cues to Action Mass media campaigns Advice from others Reminder postcard from physician or dentist Illness of family member/friend Newspaper or magazine article
Motivation Attitudes Lifestyle Learning Perception Social class Reference group Culture Consumer Behavior - problem recognition
Consumer Behavior • Internal search • External search • Alternative evaluation • Purchase • Post-purchase evaluation • Influencing decisions
Four Ps of Marketing • Product • Price • Place/Access • Promotion • Partners
Psychosocial Factors • Minority Populations • Major disparities • Lower SES • Stress and Social Support • Psychological Models • Health Belief Model • Locus of Control • Self-efficacy
Psychosocial Factors • Ecological Model • Intrapersonal • Interpersonal • Institutional • Community • Public Policy