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Behavior. Autonomous Characters. Self-Directed characters "puppets that pull their own strings" -Ann Marion. Autonomous Characters. Acknowledgement

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Autonomous characters l.jpg
Autonomous Characters

  • Self-Directed characters

    "puppets that pull their own strings" -Ann Marion


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Autonomous Characters

  • Acknowledgement

    Much of this material is taken from the work of Craig Reynolds. He maintains a web pages including a rich source of material of steering behavior and the consumate source on flocking.

    Also see:

    Steering Behaviors For Autonomous Characters

    by Craig Reynolds


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Three-Tier Hierarchy

  • Action selection

    goals and strategies “What to do”

  • Steering

    guidance / motion control “How to do it”

  • Locomotion

    movement generation “Getting it done”


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Flocks in Film

  • 1987: Stanley and Stella in: Breaking the Ice, (short)

    Director: Larry Malone, Producer: Symbolics, Inc.

  • 1988: Behave, (short)

    Produced and directed by Rebecca Allen

  • 1989: The Little Death, (short)

    Director: Matt Elson, Producer: Symbolics, Inc.

  • 1992: Batman Returns, (feature)

    Director: Tim Burton, Producer: Warner Brothers

  • 1993: Cliffhanger, (feature)

    Director: Renny Harlin, Producer: Carolco.

  • 1994: The Lion King, (feature)

    Director: Allers / Minkoff, Producer: Disney.


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Flocks in Film

  • 1996: From Dusk Till Dawn, (feature)

    Director: Robert Rodriguez, Producer: Miramax

  • 1996: The Hunchback of Notre Dame, (feature)

    Director: Trousdale / Wise, Producer: Disney.

  • 1997: Hercules, (feature)

    Director: Clements / Musker, Producer: Disney.

  • 1997: Spawn, (feature)

    Director: Dipp₫, Producer: Disney.

  • 1997: Starship Troopers, (feature)

    Director: Verhoeven, Producer: Tristar Pictures.

  • 1998: Mulan, (feature)

    Director: Bancroft/Cook, Producer: Disney.


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Flocks in Film

  • 1998: Antz, (feature)

    Director: Darnell/Guterman/Johnson, Producer: DreamWorks/PDI.

  • 1998: A Bugs Life, (feature)

    Director: Lasseter/Stanton, Producer: Disney/Pixar.

  • 1998: The Prince of Egypt, (feature)

    Director: Chapman/Hickner/Wells, Producer: DreamWorks.

  • 1999: Star Wars: Episode I--The Phantom Menace, (feature)

    Director: Lucas, Producer: Lucasfilm.

  • 2000: Lord of the Rings: the Fellowship of the Ring (feature)

    Director: Jackson, Producer: New Line Cinema.


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Seeking and Fleeing

  • Seeking and Fleeing Applet (Reynolds)


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Pursuing and Avoiding

  • Pursuing and Avoiding Applet (Reynolds)




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Flocking Demos

  • Flocking Applet (Craig Reynolds)

  • Fish Schooling (Steve Hughes)

  • Beach House (Ishihama Yoshiaki )

    For more demos see Reynolds “Boids in Java”


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Do People Flock?

Social psychologist’s report the people tend to travel as

singles or in groups of size 2 to 5.


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Characteristics of Groups

  • Proximity

  • Coupled Behavior

  • Common Purpose

  • Relationship Between Members


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Moving Formations

  • Pairs: Side by side

  • Triples: Triangular shape


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Stationary Formations

Stationary quintuple formed

Moving pair approaches

stationary triple


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Locomotion Model for Walking

  • Two Parameters

    • Speed

      • Combination of step length and step rate

    • Orientation

      • Head direction for forward walking


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Action Space

Accelerate Accelerate Accelerate

Turn Left No Turn Turn Right

Coast Coast Coast

Turn Left No Turn Turn Right

Decelerate Decelerate Decelerate

Turn Left No Turn Turn Right


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Distributed Preference Voting

  • Delegation of voters: Constraint Proxies

  • Proxies vote on each cell of the action space

  • Votes are tallied

  • Winning cell represents best compromise among competing interests


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Vote Tabulation

Pursuit Point

Tracking

Maintain Target Velocity

Inertia

1.0

Avoid Peds

Maintain

Formation

Avoid Obstacles

1.0

1.0

Centering

4.0

2.0

5.0

2.0

Electioneer

Winning Cell


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A Group of Two Following a Path

Pursuit Point Tracking

Maintain Formation

walkway axis

-1.0 -1.0 +1.0

-1.0 -1.0 +1.0

-1.0 -1.0 +1.0

+1.0 +1.0 +1.0

-1.0 -1.0 -1.0

-1.0 -1.0 -1.0

pursuit point

1.0

2.0

+1.0 +1.0 +3.0

-3.0 -3.0 -1.0

-3.0 -3.0 -3.0

Election for ped 1

ped 2

ped 1

Winning vote = Accelerate/Turn Right


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Avoiding an Obstacle -- Trajectory

walkway axis

walkway axis

ped 1

ped 1

ped 2

ped 2

Small look-ahead distance

Large look-ahead distance