Is brain-behavior behavior?. If so, it can be conditioned just like other behaviors In 1960s, certain rhythms could be “trained” Led to Neurotherapy and Brain-Computer interfaces (BCI). History of Biofeedback. JH Bair, 1901, instrument used to teach ear wiggling
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From Kamiya (1978) Science paper
(i.e., they hallucinated)
In 1967, Gordon Allies, inventor of amphetamine, was contracted to test toxicity of Mercury capsule rocket fuel with David Fairchild
However Allies tested another chemical compound on himself and died before contract over. Fairchild asked Sterman to help finish work.
MB StermanHistory of SMR biofeedback
Inject 100 mg/kg or so of fuel into each cat
After one hour, all usually go into grand mal
but not all - 7 delayed, 3 not at all.
seizure thresholds changed in these 10
Not explainable by placebo (“i shall please” in Latin) as cats didn’t know what to expect, and experimenter blind because effect was entirely unexpectedHistory of SMR biofeedback
When monomethyl hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide oxidizer come in contact, they ignite automatically( i.e., no spark required) in absence of oxygen
Avg 2 hours+ for seizures with EEG trained cats vs. 1 hour for normal cats
NASA Rocket fuel
Lantz & Sterman, Epilepsia, 1988; Sterman & Lantz, JNT, 2001
60% reduction in seizures 12 mo after training
Sterman & Bloomfield, 1976
Lubar and Bahler (1976) trained epileptics to reduce seizure but noted that a hyperactive epileptic showed decrease in his overactivity after SMR enhancement and theta suppression training
Neurofeedback Applications by year of 1st publication
Thalamocortical dysrhythmias may underlying a variety of conditions including depression, dysfunction associated with TBI, etc