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Assessing euro area residential property prices through the lens of key fundamentals*. L. Gattini European Central Bank December 2011. * This presentation represents the views of the presenter which do not necessarily correspond with those of the ECB. Outline. Background.

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assessing euro area residential property prices through the lens of key fundamentals

Assessing euro area residential property prices through the lens of key fundamentals*

L. Gattini

European Central Bank

December 2011

* This presentation represents the views of the presenter which do not necessarily correspond with those of the ECB.

slide2

Outline

  • Background

2. Data and modelling approach

3. Results

4. Other approaches for the euro area & additional results for countries

5. Conclusions

slide3

Background

Two approaches to the analysis of house price developments:

  • Analysis of the boom and bust cycles – Kennedy and Andersen (1994), Alessi and Detken (2009), Borgy et al. (2009) – costly and not costly cycles
  • Understanding the contribution of the fundamental components of housing market to price developments – Tsatsaronis et al. (2009), Goodhart and Hofmann (2008)

Mixed set of potential explanatory variables

  • Real economic variables
  • “Credit view”: credit, leverage, overall bank balance sheet
  • Interest rate and risk taking channel
slide4

Data and modelling approach

“Forecasting and assessing euro area house prices through the lens of key fundamentals” – Gattini & Hiebert, ECB WP 1249

  • An empirical framework for the analysis of house prices in the euro area using a vector error-correction model (VECM)
  • Real house prices related to selected housing demand and supply fundamentals
  • We employ a structural decomposition – its is more suitable for policy analysis and interpretation of results in light of equilibrium/dis-equilibrium
slide5

Data and modelling approach

  • Estimated on quarterly data – 1970/2010
  • Sources: ECB, OECD, Eurostat
  • Data for some countries are interpolated (e.g. DE)
  • 4 variables: Real Disposable Income, Real Mixed Interest Rate, Real Private Residential Investment, Real House Prices
  • Vector Error Correction model – parsimonious specification
  • 5 lags – Akaike Schawarz and FPE criteria
  • 1 Cointegrating Relation – Johansen Method – unrestricted cointegration rank tests (trace and maximum eigenvalue)
slide8

Modelling approach – Structural decomposition

- (S)VECM system more suitable for policy analysis - structural decomposition is useful to analyse the responsiveness of the

system – k*(k − 1)/2=6 restrictions imposed

- Common trend approach – King, Plosser, Stock and Watson (1991), Iacoviello (2002)

- We distinguish between structural shocks with permanent and transitory effects

Permanent shocks - baseline identification imposes zero restrictions on the first and second columns of the D(1) elements

slide9

Modelling approach – Structural decomposition

Housing market technology shock

- Technological shocks to the construction industry - rarely observed

- Motivated by changes in the regulatory framework (e.g. building regulations and/or the modification of various zoning laws)

- This could cause changes in housing production virtually indistinguishable from housing building technology - Matsuyama (1999)

slide10

Modelling approach – Structural decomposition

The impact on real interest rates would be ambiguous

  • The euro area - relatively closed economy

- A substitution effect between categories of investment should nullify possible discrepancies in terms of returns between different categories of investment in the long-run

- Sectoral specific technology shocks can have an impact in the short-run on interest rates – zero in the long-run given counterbalancing effects

slide11

Modelling approach – Structural decomposition

Economy wide technological shock

- Expected to exert some impact on all the variables in the system

Financing cost shock

The outcome of features that permanently alter interest rate risk premia, such as financial innovation or –specific to the case of euro area– convergence in the run up to European Monetary Union.

slide12

Modelling approach – Structural decomposition

Transitory shocks - A two way short-run interaction between real interest rate and real income has been excluded via imposing two zero restrictions - standard lags in the monetary policy transmission mechanism

Housing demand shock - The temporary shift in preferences toward housing assets

- Rationalized in the context of literature on a time-varying housing risk premia (seeWeeken, 2004)

- A temporary shift from non-residential demand to residential demand

slide19

Other approaches for the euro area

  • Crude affordability in the euro area – measured by the ratio of per capita GDP to the house price index – computed relative to long-term trends
  • Residual of a simple error-correction framework with real house prices regressed on real GDP per capita, population and the real interest rate
  • House price-to-rent ratio computed relative to its long-run average – a simplified static dividend discount model or asset pricing approach
  • The evolution of the house price-to-rent ratio computed relative to the real long term interest rate - return on a housing investment should be equal to the returns on alternative investment opportunities
slide22

Conclusions

  • Proposed a structural methodology capturing fundamental demand and supply factors
  • The structural model suggests that euro area housing has been overvalued in recent years – 2006/2007 by 10% -, implying a period of stagnation, which is already started in 2009, to bring housing valuation back in line with its modelled fundamentals
  • During the last house price boom much of the increase appears to reflect a permanent component with an increasing importance of real disposable income per capita
  • A transitory component has also contributed – particularly
  • since 2006. In particular, housing preference and income shocks were a key driver in explaining house price dynamics over this period