Agricultural Commodity Options

1 / 26

# Agricultural Commodity Options - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

##### Agricultural Commodity Options

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
##### Presentation Transcript

1. Agricultural Commodity Options Options grants the right, but not the obligation,to buy or sell a futures contract at a predetermined price for a specified period of time.

2. OPTIONS TERMS Strike Price: The predetermined price of the futures contract i.e. price at which the futures contract can be bought or sold. Premium: The cost of the right to buy or sell a futures contract – cost of the option. The buyer loses the premium regardless of whether the option is used or not.

3. Real Estate Example Suppose that on June 1, a farmer is approached by his neighbor about purchasing 100 acres of adjacent land at \$1,600 per acre. The farmer is almost certain that he wants the land but is unable to arrange financing for six months. The neighbor proposes to grant a six-month option on the property at \$1,600 per acre in exchange for a \$12 per acre fee (\$1,200). This option is similar to a commodity option with the following characteristics: Purchaser = The farmer (Option buyer) Grantor = The neighbor (Option seller) Exercise price = \$1,600 (Strike price) Expiration date = December 1 Premium = \$1,200

4. Options are popular because: • Price Insurance. • Limited financial obligation. • Marketing flexibility.

5. Two Types of Options • PUT OPTION Gives buyer right to sell underlying futures contract. • CALL OPTION Gives buyer right to buy underlying futures contract. • In both cases the underlying commodity is a futures contract, not the physical commodity

6. PUT OPTION A put option gives the holder the right, but not the obligation, to sell a specific futures contract at a specific price “To put it on them”

7. Call Option A call option gives the holder the right, but not the obligation, to buy a specific futures contract at a specific price “To call from them”

8. Put and Call Options • Put Option: • The right to sell a futures contract • Provides protection against falling prices • Sets a minimum price target • Call Option: • The right to buy a futures contract • Protects against rising prices (e.g. feed costs) • Allows participation in seasonal price rises

9. How Is the Premium ForAn Option Determined? Question: What would you be willing to pay for the right to sell a futures contract at \$3.00 if the current futures price is \$2.80? Answer: If the premium is under \$.20, you could make a profit by exercising the option (sell @ \$3) and buy a futures contract for \$2.80 at the same time, making a \$20 profit.

10. Factors Affecting Option Premiums • Difference between the strike price of the option and the price of the underlying commodity (futures contract) • INTRINSIC VALUE • Length of time to option expiration • TIME VALUE

11. Components of Premium • Intrinsic Value + • Time Value = Premium

12. INTRINSIC VALUE “positive” difference between the strike price and the underlying commodity futures price • FOR A PUT OPTION – strike price exceeds futures price • FOR A CALL OPTION – strike price below futures price

13. TIME VALUE • Portion of option premium resulting from length of time to expiration. Expiration is the date on which the rights of the option holder expire. • Usually decreases with length of time until expiration, but does increase as price volatility of the underlying futures contract increases.

14. Components of Time Value • Time • Volatility • Interest rates • Underlying futures price • Strike price

15. Time value 0.50 0.25 0 180 0 90 Days to expiration Time Decay

16. Options are said to be:In the money (ITM) – have intrinsic valueOut of the money (OTM) – have no intrinsic value

17. Call Option In-the-Money (ITM) Strike price < Futures price At-the-Money (ATM) Strike price = Futures price Out-of-the-Money (OTM) Strike price > Futures price

18. Profit Buy Call @\$.50/Bu \$1.00 \$0.50 Beans Price at Expiration 0 \$8.50 \$7.50 \$8.00 \$6.50 \$7.00 \$0.50 \$1.00 OTM ATM ITM Loss Payoff diagram – Long Call Strike Price

19. Put Option In-the-Money (ITM) Strike price > Futures price At-the-Money (ATM) Strike price = Futures price Out-of-the-Money (OTM) Strike price < Futures price

20. Profit Buy Put @\$.25/Bu \$0.50 \$0.25 Beans Price at Expiration 0 \$8.00 \$7.50 \$7.75 \$7.00 \$7.25 \$0.25 \$0.50 ITM ATM OTM Loss Payoff diagram – Long Put

21. What Happens to An OptionWhich You Own? • It Can Expire • Unexercised Options Die • You Must Still Pay the Option Premium • You can Exercise the Option • Put: Sell the Futures Contract • Call: Buy the Futures Contract • Offsett, By Selling the Put or Call Option

22. Reasons Why a Producer Might Buy Options

23. OPTIONS WORKSHEET STRIKE PRICE ___________ EXPECTED BASIS ___________ PREMIUM ___________ COMMISSION ___________ = EXPECTED MIN NET SELLING PRICE ___________

24. Put Option Example Date Cash Futures Option Market Market Market Spring Sell Dec. @\$4 Buy Dec Put Strike=\$4 Premium=\$.20 Harvest \$2.50 Dec. Fut=\$3 Sell Dec Put Sell Dec@\$4 Strike=\$4 Buy Dec@\$3 Premium=\$1.20 GAIN……………………..\$1………………\$1

25. Pricing Alternatives(Falling Market) Date Cash Sale Forward PreHarvest Option At Harvest Contract Hedge (\$.20 prem.) Spring \$3.40 Sell Dec Buy Put Planting offer @\$4 \$4 strike Fall Sell@2.50 Deliver Buy Dec Sell Dec@\$4 Harvest @\$3.40 @\$3 Buy Dec@\$3 Net Return \$2.50 \$3.40 \$2.50 cash \$2.50 cash +\$1 fut.=\$3.50 +\$1 fut-.20=\$3.30

26. Pricing Alternatives(Rising Market) Date Cash Sale Forward Pre-Harvest Option At Harvest Contract Hedge (\$.20 prem.) Spring \$3.40 Sell Dec Buy Put Planting offer @\$4 \$4 strike Fall Sell@4.50 Deliver Buy Dec Let Option Harvest @\$3.40 @\$5 Lapse/Die Net Return \$4.50 \$3.40 \$4.50 cash \$4.50 cash -\$1 fut.=\$3.50 -.20=\$4.30