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IMMUNE SYSTEM PowerPoint Presentation
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IMMUNE SYSTEM

IMMUNE SYSTEM

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IMMUNE SYSTEM

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  1. IMMUNE SYSTEM Chapter 21

  2. COMPONENTS

  3. INNATE IMMUNITY

  4. Innate Defenses • Surface Barriers • Skin • Mucous membranes

  5. Innate Defenses • Chemical Barriers • Mucus • Lysozymes • Saliva • Lacrimal fluid • High acidity • Gastric juices • Urine • Vaginal secretions • Sebum

  6. Innate Defenses • Cellular Defenses • Phagocytic cells • Macrophages or Monocytes • Free (alveolar) • Fixed (Kupffer) • Neutrophils • Dendritic cells

  7. Phagocytic Mobilization • Alarm call • Vasodilation • Increased permeability • Leukocytosis • Margination • Diapedesis • Chemotaxis

  8. Phagocytic Mechanism • Adherence • Ingestion • Phagosome • Digestion • Lysosome • Phagolysosome • Resolution

  9. Innate Defenses • Cellular Defenses • Phagocytes • Inflammatory Cells • Mast Cells • Basophils • Eosinophils? • Natural Killer Cells

  10. Chemical Defenses

  11. Inflammatory Response

  12. Anti-microbial Agents • Interferons

  13. Anti-microbial Agents • Interferons • Complement • Pyrogens

  14. ADAPTIVE IMMUNITY

  15. Adaptive Immunity • Specific • Systemic • Memory

  16. Adaptive Defenses • Antigens = “self” versus “non-self” • Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) • MHC I • MHC II

  17. Adaptive Defenses

  18. Adaptive Defenses

  19. Antibody-Mediated Immunity • Also known as “humoral immunity” • Involves B lymphocytes • DIRECTLY recognizes antigen • B lymphocytes undergo clonal expansion

  20. Clonal Expansion of B Cells

  21. Primary and Secondary Humoral Responses

  22. Antibody Structure

  23. Antibody Types

  24. Antibody Types

  25. Antibody Function

  26. Active and PassiveHumoral Immunity

  27. Cell-Mediated Immunity • Involves T lymphocytes • Cannot recognize antigen directly • Antigen must be presented by APC • T lymphocytes are more diverse: • Helper T cells • Cytotoxic T cells • Suppressor T cells • Memory T cells

  28. T-Cell Education

  29. Cell-Mediated Immunity

  30. Stimulation of TC cells

  31. Cell-Mediated Immunity

  32. Stimulation of TH cells

  33. Co-Stimulation

  34. Function of TC cells

  35. Function of TC cells

  36. Clonal Expansion ofT Cells

  37. Summary of Components of Adaptive Immunity

  38. Summary of Components of Adaptive Immunity

  39. Homeostatic Imbalances • Organ transplant and tissue rejection • Autograft • Isograft • Allograft • Xenograft • Immunodeficiency • Severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome (SCID) • Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

  40. Homeostatic Imbalances • Autoimmune diseases • Multiple sclerosis • Grave’s disease • Type I diabetes • Systemic lupus • Myasthenia gravis • Glomerulonephritis • Rheumatoid arthritis

  41. Homeostatic Imbalances • Hypersensitivities • Immediate (Type I) • Subacute • Cytotoxic (Types II) • Immune-complex (Type III) • Delayed (Type IV)

  42. END CHAPTER 21