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Learning Objectives

Learning Objectives

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Learning Objectives

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  1. Chapter 11Intrabusiness,E-Government and More(modified for class 22.02.02 by Judith Molka-Danielsen) Prentice Hall, 2002

  2. Learning Objectives • (B2E) business to employee • Corporate Portals and the intranets • E-government to citizens (B2C) and business (G2B) • Describe e-government initiatives • peer-to-peer technology in B2E, B2B, and C2C Prentice Hall, 2002

  3. Portals • portals - web sites serving as initial points of entry or as concentration points for many services. Portal means "doorway or entrance". Prentice Hall, 2002

  4. Intrabusiness Communications • B2E communication can be between the business and individual employees • To provide added services to the employee • To help the business function better • Intrabusiness EC can be between the business and business units or departments • …sometimes portals are used. Prentice Hall, 2002

  5. Book Case Reasons: Portal Speeds Product Research and Development • B2E Portals provide • Fast and easy access to information required to support the design activities and R&D • Collaboration tools and database for locating company experts (Intranets, DataWarehousing) • Features • Strong security • Easy integration with legacy systems • Built-in intelligent agents • Fast seraph engine • Powerful knowledge management capabilities Prentice Hall, 2002

  6. (B2E) – private services • Business to its employees (B2E) • Employees electronically order supplies and material needed for work • Corporate stores that sell company’s products to employees at a discount • Businesses disseminate information on the intranet • Employees can buy discounted insurance, travel packages, etc., on corporate intranet • Employees can manage fringe benefits take classes and more Prentice Hall, 2002

  7. Intrabusiness – business services • Between and among units within the business • Large corporations consist of independent units that “sell” or “buy” materials, products, and services from each other • This type of transaction can easily be accomplished over the intranet • Network constructed to link dealerships owned by the corporation • Support communication • Collaboration • Execution of transactions Prentice Hall, 2002

  8. Intrabusiness (E2E) for the business • Between and among corporate employees (group communications) • Large organizations have classified ads on the intranet where employees can buy and sell products and services from each other • Especially popular in universities • Interconnect their intranets to increase exposure • Employees collaborate and communicate using EC technologies Prentice Hall, 2002

  9. Intrabusiness Infrastructure • Intranet—network architecture designed to serve internal informational needs of a company using Web protocols and tools • Provides: • Internet capabilities internal to the business • Protected firewall access between Internet and business internal system • Search engines • Tools for communication and collaboration Prentice Hall, 2002

  10. Collaborative Commerce Tools-create communities of users • Discussion groups by topic (email lists) • Message boards (Q&A pages) • Chat rooms or instant messaging • Experts available at web sites • Membership services for industry network members (web page hosting, email address hosting, portals sites with member centric views) • Other tools (shared CAD, video conferencing) Prentice Hall, 2002

  11. Figure 11-2Architecture of an Intranet Prentice Hall, 2002

  12. Intrabusiness Applications • IT supports business processes and can be a substitute for travel. (Intranet is the infrastructure.) • Empowerment of the employee (knowledge access) • Virtual organizations (distributed workers) • Software distribution (distributed tools) • Document management • Project management • Training (education, seminars, conferences) • Enhanced transaction processing • Paperless information delivery • Improved administrative processes Prentice Hall, 2002

  13. Types of portals Publishing portals Commercial portals Types of portals Personal portals Corporate portals Enterprise (Corporate) Portals All true, but before we go into the books perspective on Portals… Here is another Prentice Hall, 2002

  14. What is a Portal? • A web page that pulls information together (Yahoo), • Creates simple, up to date, interest based access to information • Primary purpose: pull together information, not generate it. Prentice Hall, 2002

  15. What is the information management problem? • Too much information on the web (infoglut) • Too messy, too complex to navigate • Corporations want people to stick around longer (to easy to go to another site) • Executives have no control over what people see Prentice Hall, 2002

  16. How do portals help? • Filter information – see only what I care about • Uses the Document model - magazines • Stickiness – access to content • Control – centrally published by the business Prentice Hall, 2002

  17. Why were portals created? • Reaction to browsing • Browsing is a distraction, slow • Portals stop browsing Prentice Hall, 2002

  18. Categories of Portals • Public Web Sites (Yahoo) – keep users around to read ads, read about products • Corporate portals – filter and control what the community of users sees, stop browsing, require low user support • Individual portals – pages you go to out of interest, access to relevant content, personal, (Stocks, OL results, travel info). Prentice Hall, 2002

  19. Corporate portals benefits • They support knowledge management • Up to date info • Simple to use (low user support, little training) • Browser client interface, known, no extra software to maintain • Easy to see what info is relevant • Keep workers from browsing, because they find what they need Prentice Hall, 2002

  20. Common characteristics of all portals • Simple to use • Use the document model • Push information to the user • Let the user subscribe to the technology (they must be able to personalize it, or they will not use it. It must be enjoyable.) Prentice Hall, 2002

  21. Books versus Portals • Books • Hierarchical structure – organize info • Author guided • Portable • Solitary activity • Portal • Hyperlink structure – need tools to navigate • Self guided – search ability • Sometimes portable – need e-book? • Social – networks are social • Portals may become the way to navigate e-books Prentice Hall, 2002

  22. Portal versus Desktop • Desktop • Access everything (messy, not org. Controlled) • Arrange any way (org. Must fix it) • Copy-paste-run any application • Work with the computer (access file system) • Portals • Filtered • Minimal arrangement ability • Read only applications • Real only access to file system • User resistance to being locked out of desktop. Must work together, and allow user authoring. Prentice Hall, 2002

  23. Portal Lessons learned • Simple Access to complex info • Scalibility – broad range of info, many sources, legacy systems • Use document process model (magazine) • Send only info that the community cares about • Support group activities within an organization • Design it so that your suppliers and customers can become members of your portal • Provide navigatable access to good content, and make it fun and interesting. Prentice Hall, 2002

  24. Figure 11-3Types of Portals Prentice Hall, 2002

  25. Figure 11-4Corporate Portal as a Gateway to Information Source: Tibco.com Prentice Hall, 2002

  26. Knowledge bases and learning tools Business process support Customer facing sales, marketing, services Collaboration and project support Access to data from disparate corporate systems Personalized pages for users Effective search and indexing tools Internal company information Enterprise (Corporate) Portals (cont.) Portal applications Prentice Hall, 2002

  27. Figure 11-5Corporate Portal Framework Source: Compiled by N. Bolloju, City University of Hong Kong, from Aneja et al. (2000) and from Kounadis (2000) Prentice Hall, 2002

  28. Example of Intranet and a Portal: Cadence Design Systems • Business challenge • Support customer’s entire product development cycle (from sales to delivery) • Organization must interact (coordinate, communicate) with customers • Corporate portal—Web-based single point of information supporting sales process • OnTrack uses home page with links to other pages • One tool provides all information and data needed • All creators of information must add it on OnTrack. They can add a message to the daily newsletter, modify a step in sales process, or update a customer presentation Prentice Hall, 2002

  29. Cadence Design Systems (cont.) • Lessons learned • Difficult task to balance cost of training against return • Key to success—unifying technology with process • Design structure to satisfy 80% instead of 100% of process • Outsourced creation of application • Shortened training time for new sales reps Prentice Hall, 2002

  30. E-Government: An Overview • E-government uses IT and EC to provide: • Convenient access to government information and services • Delivery of public services • Efficient and effective method of conducting business transactions • Digital online access to information • Online transaction services for citizens Prentice Hall, 2002

  31. Major Categories of Applications of E-Government • Government-to-citizens • Involves dozens of different initiatives enabling citizens to interact with the government from their homes • Citizens can: • Find all the information they need on the Web • Ask questions and receive answers • Pay tax and bills • Receive payments and documents Prentice Hall, 2002

  32. Major Categories of Applicationsof E-Government (cont.) • Governments • Disseminate information • Conduct training • Help find employment • Electronic benefits transfer (EBT) is an example of G2C applications • System relies on a single smart card that accesses cash and food benefits • Recipients either get electronic transfers to bank account or download to smart card • Reduces fraud Prentice Hall, 2002

  33. Major Categories of Applicationsof E-Government (cont.) • Government-to-business and business–to-government • E-procurement • Large amounts of MROs and materials direct from many suppliers • Uses basically a reverse auction system • E-auctions • Auction surpluses from vehicles to real estate • May use 3rd-party site Prentice Hall, 2002

  34. Major Categories of Applicationsof E-Government (cont.) • Government-to-government • Intelink—sharing information between intelligence agencies • Buyers.gov—general services administration • Federal case registry—health and human services • Procurement marketing and access network—small business administration • Government-to-employees—e-services for employees Prentice Hall, 2002

  35. Implementing E-Government • Stage 1: information publishing/dissemination • Individual government departments set up their own Web sites that provide: • Information about them • Range of services available • Contacts for further assistance Prentice Hall, 2002

  36. Implementing E-Government (cont.) • Stage 2: official two-way transactions • Using legally valid digital signatures and secure Web sites, customers: • Submit personal information • Conduct monetary transactions • Customers must be convinced that: • System keeps their information private • System is free of piracy Prentice Hall, 2002

  37. Implementing E-Government (cont.) • Stage 3: multipurpose portals • Customer-centric governments enhance service delivery • Customer needs can cut across department boundaries, portal allows customers to use single point-of-entry to: • Send and receive information • Process monetary transactions across multiple departments Prentice Hall, 2002

  38. Implementing E-Government (cont.) • Stage 4: portal personalization • Customers can access a variety of services at a single Web site • Customers can customize portals with their desired features • Requires sophisticated Web programming allowing interfaces • Added benefit is that governments get a more accurate read on customer preference • Electronic services • Non-electronic services Prentice Hall, 2002

  39. Implementing E-Government (cont.) • Stage 5: clustering of common services • All real transformation of government structure takes shape here • Customers see a unified package instead of once-disparate services • Distinction between departments begins to blur • Recognize groups of transactions instead of groups of agencies Prentice Hall, 2002

  40. Implementing E-Government (cont.) • Stage 6: full integration and enterprise transformation (see next slide) • Digital encyclopedia is now: • Full-service center • Personalized to each customer’s needs and preferences • Old walls defining services are torn down • Technology integrated across new government structure bridging gap between front and back offices Prentice Hall, 2002

  41. Figure 11-6The Stages of E-Government Source: Deloitte Research (see Wong, 2001). Prentice Hall, 2002

  42. Implementing E-Government (cont.) • Transformation—change is very slow • Implementing G2B • Build customer trust by increasing: • Privacy • Security • Confidentiality • Plan technology for growth and customer friendliness • Manage access channels to optimize value • Weigh insourcing vs. outsourcing • Include strong change management program Prentice Hall, 2002

  43. Implementing E-Government (cont.) • Security issues—concerns include: • Data about citizens stays secure • Privacy of individuals is maintained • Developing portals (these portal vendors also support government portals) • Tibco.com—Portal Builder • Ca.com—Jasmine ii Portal • Plumtree.com • Non-Internet e-government Prentice Hall, 2002

  44. Hvordan fungerer Ebøker? Gruppe 13 Jan Morten Støve, Svein Arild Eikemo, Ingrid Henjum, Hans Jacob Sausjord

  45. Hva er Ebøker? • Definisjon • Fysisk innretning • Innhold

  46. Distribusjonsveier • Via fjernbart media/fysisk løsning • Via PC tilkoblet Internett • Direkte til leseinnretning via fastelefoninett • Trådløs til leseinnretningen

  47. Eksempel på verdikjeder for fysiske bøker Forfatter Agent Forlag Bokhandel Kunde

  48. Eksempel på verdikjeder for Ebøker Forfatter Nettportal Kunde

  49. Infrastruktur • Teknologikrav • Allianser og Modeller