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Keep your homework with you Agenda: Opener: Discussion Class work: Romanesque Churches PowerPoint Presentation
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Keep your homework with you Agenda: Opener: Discussion Class work: Romanesque Churches

Keep your homework with you Agenda: Opener: Discussion Class work: Romanesque Churches

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Keep your homework with you Agenda: Opener: Discussion Class work: Romanesque Churches

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  1. Keep your homework with you • Agenda: • Opener: Discussion • Class work: Romanesque Churches • Exit: Knowledge in Written Composition

  2. Europe About 1100

  3. Understand the term “Romanesque” in designating the artistic style of a historic period. Examine the need for large scale pilgrimage churches, the growth of architecture and urban centers.  Goals

  4. Art of Western Europe that was between 1050 and 1200 • Trade encouraged the growth of cities and towns displaced Feudalism’s control of governing political, social, and economic structure • a term invented in the 19th century to describe medieval art that was “Roman-like.” • During the 11th and 12th centuries, thousands of sacred buildings were constructed or remodeled. • Certain distinctive architectural elements of the period’s church buildings, like barrel and groin vaults, were based on the round arch and resembled those of ancient Rome. • During the 11th and 12th centuries, thousands of church buildings were newly constructed or remodeled in the style of the old Roman basilicas. This chapter explains the similarities of church construction in France, Northern Spain, the Holy Roman Empire, Normandy,England, and Italy where the basilica design continued. Romanesque Period

  5. Pilgrimages and the Cult of Relics • Pilgrimages and the Cult of Relics • Most popular pilgrimage site was Santiago de Compostela because of the relics of St. James • Christians had long believed that relics could heal • The distance and peril of the pilgrimage were a measure of the pilgrim’s sincerity of repentance • Caused changes in church designs: • Longer and wider naves, aisles, ambulatories with additional chapels, and second-story galleries

  6. Recognize the following architectural features: • Ambulatory – major innovation • Covered walkway; passageway between the apse and the choir of the church • Radiating chapels • Chapels for the display of relics that opened directly onto the ambulatory and the transept • Nave • the central area of a church, demarcated from aisles by piers or columns • Transept, and side aisles • The part of a church with an axis that crosses the nave at a right angle Important Structures of Romanesque Architecture

  7. Cruciform (overall shape of building) • Cross-shaped • Crossing square • The area in a church formed by the intersection of a nave and a transept of equal width, often used as a standard module of interior proportion • Bays (3-D modules of nave and side aisles) • The space between two columns • Gallery/ tribune level • A gallery over the inner isle flanking the nave • Clerestory (usually small in Romanesque churches) • Windows that form the nave’s upper most level below the timber ceiling or vaults Important Elements of Romanesque Architecture

  8. Important Elements of Romanesque Architecture • Barrel vault (the norm for Romanesque naves) • Semi-circular in cross-section • Deep arch or uninterrupted series of arches, one behind the other, in an oblong space. • Groin vault (less common, used more in side aisles) • Formed at the point that two barrel vaults intersect in right angles • Cloister (element in a monastic abbey church) • Covered walks or ambulatories along its sides • Portal and its parts

  9. Tympanum: The prominent semicircular lunette above the doorway proper, comparable in importance to the triangular pediment of a Greco-Roman temple • 2) Voussoirs: the wedge-shaped blocks that together form the archivolts of the arch framing the tympanum • 3) Lintel: horizontal beam • 4) Trumeau: the center post supporting the lintel in the middle of the doorway • 5) Jambs: the side posts of the doorway Figure 17-1 South portal of Saint-Pierre, Moissac, France, ca. 1115–1135.

  10. Diagram of a Romanesque Portal Figure 17-10 The Romanesque church portal.

  11. Figure 17-2 Interior of Saint-Etienne, Vignory, France, 1050-1057.

  12. Figure 17-3 Plan of Saint-Etienne, Vignory, France, 1050-1057. (1) nave, (2) aisles, (3) choir, (4) ambulatory, (5) radiating chapels.

  13. Figure 17-4 Aerial view (looking northwest) of Saint-Sernin, Toulouse, France, ca. 1070–1120.

  14. Figure 17-5 Plan of Saint-Sernin, Toulouse, France, ca. 1070-1120 (after Kenneth John Conant).

  15. http://www.360cities.net/image/panorama360-8-saint-sernant-photomatixresults2-10-images-dsc0361-2-3enhancer-dsc0388-89-90enhancer-11974x5987-scul-smartblend#191.96,-42.58,70.0http://www.360cities.net/image/panorama360-8-saint-sernant-photomatixresults2-10-images-dsc0361-2-3enhancer-dsc0388-89-90enhancer-11974x5987-scul-smartblend#191.96,-42.58,70.0 Figure 17-6 Interior of Saint-Sernin, Toulouse, France, ca. 1070-1120.

  16. Figure 17-9 General view of the cloister (left) and detail of the pier with the relief of Abbot Durandus (right), Saint-Pierre, Moissac, France, ca. 1100–1115. Relief: limestone, 6’high.

  17. Figure 17-11 Lions and Old Testament prophet (Jeremiah or Isaiah?), trumeau of the south portal of Saint-Pierre, Moissac, France, ca. 1115–1130.

  18. Figure 17-12 GISLEBERTUS, Last Judgment, west tympanum of Saint-Lazare, Autun, France, ca. 1120–1135. Marble, 21’ wide at base.

  19. Figure 17-16 Nave (left) and painted nave vault (right) of the abbey church, Saint-Savin-sur-Gartempe, France, ca. 1100.

  20. Figure 17-17 Christ in Majesty, apse, Santa María de Mur, near Lérida, Spain, mid-twelfth century. Fresco, 24’ X 22’. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.

  21. Floor plans are based on “sacred geometry” • The dimensions of the nave, aisles, and transept all based on the size of the “crossing square” where the nave meets the transept Romanesque Churches and Sacred Geometry

  22. Figure 17-5 Plan of Saint-Sernin, Toulouse, France, ca. 1070-1120 (after Kenneth John Conant).

  23. You must design a Romanesque church floor plan • All important architectural structures need to be included • All important architectural structures need to be labeled • Remember! The importance of sacred architecture… • The details: • Fill an entire large piece of paper • Outline the building using black marker • Make it your own… make it Romanesque • Due by end of block Assignment

  24. 1) What was meant by the “white robe” of churches? • 2) What is the name of this structure? • 3) Identify key elements of Romanesque architecture. • 4) What factors sparked the increase in building of churches in Western Europe? • 5) Why do you think there was such a strong positive reception of the concept of relics in Romanesque society?? Exit Slip