the developing person through the life span 8e by kathleen stassen berger n.
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The Developing Person Through the Life Span 8e by Kathleen Stassen Berger

The Developing Person Through the Life Span 8e by Kathleen Stassen Berger

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The Developing Person Through the Life Span 8e by Kathleen Stassen Berger

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  1. The Developing Person Through the Life Span 8eby Kathleen Stassen Berger • Chapter 2 Theories of Development • What Theories Do • Grand Theories • Newer Theories

  2. Developmental Theory Developmental Theory • a group of ideas, assumptions, generalizations that interpret and illuminate the thousands of observations made about human growth • provides a framework for understanding how and why people change as they grow older.

  3. What Theories Do • Theories produce a hypothesis. • Theories generate discoveries. • Theories offer practical guidance. … Theories are NOT facts.

  4. Grand Theories Grand Theories of the Early 20th Century: • Psychoanalytic Theory • Behavioral Theory • Cognitive Theory Newer Theories: • Sociocultural Theory • Universal Perspective: Humanism and Evolutionary Theory

  5. Psychoanalytic Theory • A theory of human development that holds that irrational, unconscious drives and motives, often originating in childhood, underlie human behavior. • Psychoanalytic theory originated with Sigmund Freud (1856– 1939)

  6. Psychoanalytic Theory Freud’s Psychosexual Stages of Development

  7. Psychoanalytic Theory Erik Erikson (1902–1994) • Described eight developmental stages, each characterized by a challenging developmental crisis. • His first five stages build on Freud’s theory; but he also described three adult stages.

  8. Psychoanalytic Theory Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development

  9. Behaviorism • A theory of human development that studies observable behavior. • Also called “learning theory” as it describes the laws and processes by which behavior is learned. • Conditioning -the processes by which responses become linked to particular stimuli and learning takes place. • Classical Conditioning • Operant Conditioning • Social Learning

  10. Behaviorism Classical conditioning - Ivan Pavlov(1849-1936) • (also called respondent conditioning), a process in which a person or animal learns to associate a neutral stimulus with a meaningful stimulus, gradually reacting to the neutral stimulus with the same response as to the meaningful one. •

  11. Behaviorism Operant Conditioning

  12. Behaviorism Operant conditioning - B.F. Skinner(1904–1990) • (also called instrumental conditioning)a learning process in which a particular action is followed either by something desired or by something unwanted. • •

  13. Behaviorism Social LearningTheory-Albert Bandura An extension of behaviorism that emphasizes the influence that other people have over a person’s behavior. Modeling- people learn by observing other people and then copying them. Self-Efficacy- how effective people think they are when it comes to changing themselves or altering their social context.

  14. Cognitive Theory • Jean Piaget (1896–1980) • Thoughts and expectations profoundly affect action. • Focuses on changes in how people think over time. • Cognitive development occurs over four age-related periods • Constructivist Perspective of Learning

  15. Cognitive Theory

  16. Cognitive Theory Cognitive Equilibrium • A state of mental balance, no confusion • Interpret new ideas through past ideas • Easy equilibrium not always possible • If new experience is not understandable, cognitive disequilibrium can occur • Assimilation • Accommodation

  17. Cognitive Theory Information Processing • Not a single theory but a framework • Inspired by how a computer works • How people think before they respond • How attention and thought affects mental function • Relationship between one person’s thinking and another’s

  18. Newer Theories Sociocultural Theory • Leo Vygotsky (1896-1934) • Development results from a person’s interaction with their social and cultural surroundings • Culture is integral to development • Apprenticeship in thinking: how cognition is “taught” by the older and more skilled

  19. Sociocultural Theory Zone of proximal development • Made up of the skills, knowledge, and concepts that the learner is close to acquiring Learner needs help to master Learning must be individualized

  20. The Universal Perspective Humanism • Abraham Maslow (1908-1970), Hierarchy of Needs • Carl Rogers (1902-1987) • Stresses the potential of humans for good • All people have the same needs • Emphasize what people have in common

  21. The Universal Perspective Evolutionary Theory • Based on Darwin’s ideas • Humans are more alike than different • Human development influenced by drives to survive and reproduce • Selective adaptation: process by which people adapt to their environment

  22. Eclectic Perspective Eclectic perspective • The approach taken by most developmentalists • Aspects of each of the various theories of development are applied rather than adhering exclusively to one