By Miss S Plain Indians Apache Comanche Tonkawa
Keep a sharp out for: • As we go through the power-point, keep an eye for these images! • A means that I have a question I want you to think about. After you think about it, share your thoughts with me. • A means that I am sharing a fun/interesting fact with you
Counting to Three Two Three One Counting in Apache data naki táági Counting in Comanche sumu wahaatu pahiitu we:ispax ketay metis Counting in Tonkawa
Apache Indians Every Indian tribe has a name that they refer to themselves as and sometimes they also have a name that their neighbors call them ( kinda like a nick-name) For instance, the word Apache means enemy. This name was given to this tribe by their Zuni neighbors. The Apache actually referred to themselves as Nde. What do you think the word Nde means?
The People This picture of Apache Spirit Dancers was taken 1887.
Home Life: For Women • The Apache women were in control of the house hold. It was their responsibility to cook, take care of the children and even build new houses each time the tribe settled into a new territory. Since the Apaches moved from settlement to settlement, they are known as a nomadic tribe. Women also helped defend the village against attacks. Like men, the women knew how to shoot and also ride horses.
The women were also involved in story-telling, creating art-work, and music. Some women also took part in traditional medicine.
Home Life: For Men • The Apache men served as political leaders, hunters and also warriors. Like the women, the men also participated in music, art-work, medicine and story-telling. The Apache men were political leaders. What do you think another name for political leader is? A chief
Home Life- Children • The children did chores around the home and also played with each other. (Just the same as you do today). However, some of the games that they children played are a little different than what you play today. For example: “Toe Toss Stick: To play this game, you needed a stick. To set up play, you first made a mark on the ground. Then you stood behind the mark and balanced a stick on your toe. The object was the toss the stick as high as you could and have it land on the mark. You got points for height and for accuracy”
Homes • Apache homes were made of wood and buffalo skin. These homes are called wickiups. They are about the size of a tent, and sometimes they could be built in as little time as two hours.
Clothing What kind of things do you think the Apache wore? What do you think their clothes were made of? Before the 1800’s, Apache women wore dresses made of buckskin and the men wore shirts made of leather and also breech cloth. On their feet, the Apache wore moccasins. Women typically had long hair which their would keep in a bun. Men had their hair cut to shoulder length. Both men and women wore shell jewelry. The most famous would be the chocker necklace. On special occasions such as: war, religious ceremonies or festivals, the Apache painted their faces.
This man is a “crown dancer”. His purpose is to communicate with the spirit world. Take a look at his traditional clothing. Do you see some of the things we talked about?
Food For Thought • Before the days of McDonalds and Taco Bell, Native Americans had to hunt and gather their own food. The Apache men hunted buffalo, deer and other small game. The women would gather nuts, berries and other fruits. Eat more chicken
Comanche Indians • The name Comanche means enemy. This name was given to them by their Ute neighbors, however they often referred to themselves as numinu. “This means the people.” This sounds very familiar!! What other Native American tribe can you think of that has the same nickname? What tribe can you think of that also calls themselves “the people”
Home Life: For Women • Similarly to the Apache tribe, the Comanche women were in control of the house-hold and also built the houses for the different families living in the tribe. It was also the women’s responsibility to carry the house post to each new location.
Home Life: For Men • The men of the tribe were chiefs, warriors and also hunters. • Both the women and the men told stories, created art- work, and practiced medicine. How Buffalo Were Released onto Earth- Folktale
Home Life: For Children • This is an example of a typical game that the Comanche children used to play
Homes • Comanche houses were made out of buffalo hide. The Comanche tribe called their homes tipis or (teepees). Comanche people (like the Apache) were nomads and could pack their entire village in one hour to follow the buffalo herds. When the Comanche’s would follow the buffalo herd, they would travel on a travois. The travois is a type of dog sled.
Clothing • The men wore breech cloths with leather leggings and a war shirt made out of buckskin. Comanche women wore dresses made of buck skin. The dresses were painted with different tribal designs and had fringe on them. Both men and women wore moccasins and in the winter time they wore robes that were made of buffalo hide.
Notice the decorations on this war shirt that men wore This is a buck skin dress that women wore in the Comanche tribe
Women would wear their hair loosely and sometimes the center of their hair would be painted red. Men on the other hand wore their hair in two braids typically wrapped in fur. The Comanche people only cut their hair when in morning. • Traditionally, the Comanche people wore headdresses. A headdress is a cap with feathers and ermine tails. For special occasions the Apache people would paint their faces. Since the Apache and Comanche tribes seem to be similar, I wonder if the Comanche’s wore face paint. Tell me your thoughts. YES! The Comanche also wore face paint during religious ceremonies, war and other special occasions. Along with face paint, the Comanche’s would occasionally wear different tribal tattoos.
Dining with the Comanche • The Hunters would use a bow and arrow to catch their prey. Their main course was typically buffalo, though they were also known to eat , wild potatoes, nuts and berries.
Tonkawa Indians • Scholars (Researchers) believe that the word Tonkawa means they keep it togetherin the neighbor language of the Witchita tribe. • Although many Tonkawa’s currently live in Oklahoma they were originally Texas natives. In the 1800’s they were forced into Oklahoma along with several other Native American tribes.
Home Life: Men, Women and Children • The life of a Tonkawa Indian is similar to the lives of the other two tribes we have discusses earlier. The women cooked and took care of the children while the men protected the village, and hunted for food. This tribe, like our other two tribes, told traditional tales, created art work and practiced medicine. • Tonkawa’s also resided in tipis(teepees) much like their Comanche neighbor.
Clothing • The women wore deer skin that wrapped around their body while the men wore breech cloth. While they had moccasins, the Tonkawa people only wore them on special occasions. Most of the time, they preferred to walk bare foot. In the winter time, the women would wear shawls of rabbit fur and the men would wear buffalo robes. • For ceremonies or special occasions, they would wear face paint and display tribal tattoos. What neighboring tribe was also known to display tribal tattoos? The Comanche
Order Up • The Tonkawa’s had a diet similar to the Apache and the Comanche. Since the diet of all three tribes is almost identical, name some things that the Tonkawa’s would have ate. Along with all your responses, the Tonkawa’s also ate corn and they collected roots.
The Apaches, Comanches, and Tonkawas were known enemies of each other and often fought against each other.
Our New Vocabulary Tipis/ Teepees Apache Tonkawa Travois Nde Nomadic Chief Wikiups Breech Cloth Moccasins
Work Cited • http://www.native-languages.org/texas.htm • http://www.bigorrin.org/apache_kids.htm • http://www.greatdreams.com/apache/apache-tribe.htm • http://www.texasindians.com/comanche.htm • http://www.tonkawatribe.com/