Culture of the Plain Indians. Nomads roamed vast distances main source of food -the Buffalo Similarities Between Them Extended family networks Close relationship with nature Assignment of tasks Women generally performed domestic tasks: Rearing Children Cooking Preparing hides
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roamed vast distances
main source of food
Similarities Between Them
Extended family networks
Close relationship with nature
Assignment of tasks
Women generally performed domestic tasks:
Men performed a variety of tasks that included:
Supervising the military life of the band
Government issued annuities
Payments to reservation dwellers
starving to death.
Chief Little Crow
food on credit.
Trader Andrew Myrick replied, “If they are hungry, let them eat grass or their own dung.”
Grass stuffed in this mouth.
307 Dakota to death
President Lincoln reduced to 38.
Troops to the Plains
Sioux – The Lakota
The Lakota offered refuge to fleeing Dakota Indians
Chief Red Cloud
Chief Crazy Horse
Chief Sitting Bull
Link the mining towns with the East.
Sioux Indian hunting grounds
Chief Red Cloud warned
Fort Phil Kearney
Captain William Judd Fetterman
82-man force sent to its rescue.
Trapped-Dec. 21, 1866
Chief High Backbone
"The Fetterman Fight" by J. K. Ralston.
Raiding wagon trains & stealing cattle and horses from ranches.
Estimate 200 settlers killed.
Chief Black Kettle
To await at Sand Creek
Colonel John Chivington
Ordered to attack the Cheyenne at Sand Creek
Fourteen soldiers died
69-600 Native Americans were killed.
Fetterman’s Massacre & Sand Creek Massacre,
Congress that something had to be done.
In 1867 Congress formed an Indian Peace Commission.
Two large reservations
Pressured Native American leaders into signing treaties
Those who refused
Corrupt American Traders
Demise of the Buffalo
The Army encouraged buffalo killing.
By 1889 very few of the animals remained
Helen Hunt Jackson’s A Century of Dishonor and Ramona
Criticism of policy towards American Indians
1876 Lakota Sioux Reservation
General Alfred H. Terry.
Lieutenant Colonel George A. Custer, Seventh Cavalry
June 25, 1876
Custer launched attack in broad daylight
2,500 Lakota and Cheyenne Warriors
Custer commanded about 210 soldiers
Newspapers portrayed the battle as a massacre.
The United States Army responded quickly
October of 1877, Chief Joseph surrendered
“Our chiefs are killed…The little children are freezing to death. My people…have no blankets, no food…Hear me, my chiefs; I am tired; my heart is sick and sad. From where the sun now stands I will fight no more forever.”-quoted in Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee
The Ghost Dance
Banned Religious ceremony
Celebrated “Day of Reckoning”
Reunite with deceased ancestors
Blamed for defiance
Ghost Dance participants fled
200 Men/Women/Children Dead
Assimilate, or be absorbed, into American society as landowners and citizens.
That meant breaking up the reservation system into individual land allotments
This became law in 1887 with the Dawes Act.
160 acres of reservation land for farming
Like many homesteaders, they found the land allotments too small to be profitable and life too harsh to withstand.
Same young Indians a short time later
Young Indians upon arrival at Carlisle School in Penn.
…American history has been in a large degree the history of the colonization of the Great West.
The existence of an area of free land, its continuous recession, and the advance of American settlement westward explain American development.
The frontier Americanized Americans.
The individual was rapidly acclimatized, though the process lasted 300 years.
Cheap or even free land provided a "safety valve" which protected the nation against uprisings of the poverty-stricken and malcontent.