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The Scientists Mind. Chapter 2. Three Scientists, Three Individuals. Carl Sagan-Astronomer, Pulitzer Prize winning author Enriqueta Barrera-Geologist, Paleontologist Evan B. Forde-National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Researcher. Different Lives, Common Goals.

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three scientists three individuals
Three Scientists, Three Individuals
  • Carl Sagan-Astronomer, Pulitzer Prize winning author
  • Enriqueta Barrera-Geologist, Paleontologist
  • Evan B. Forde-National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Researcher
different lives common goals
Different Lives, Common Goals
  • Scientists have in common the scientist’s mind
  • A way of looking at the world with both logic and a sense of wonder
qualities of scientific thinking
Qualities of Scientific Thinking
  • Scientists are observant
  • Scientists are creative
  • Scientists are skeptical
  • Evidence- material or data that can be measured to verify or test a prediction
  • Hypothesis-tentative explanation for an observation
  • Technology-Application of science to meet human needs
scientific methods of inquiry
Scientific Methods of Inquiry
  • Creativity and logic play a large role in science
how scientists approach questions
How Scientists Approach Questions
  • Some questions are answered by experimentation
  • Some questions are answered by observation
  • Scientific inquiry generally involves
    • Observing
    • Asking questions
    • Forming a hypothesis,
    • Gathering data
    • Testing the hypothesis
    • Sharing results
slide7

How Scientists Approach Quetsions

  • Scientific inquiry generally involves, observing, asking questions, forming a hypothesis, gathering data, testing the hypothesis, and sharing what has been learned.
  • Not every question can best be answered by doing an experiment.
slide8

Applying This Approach

  • The best way to figure out what was going on was to collect data.
  • A look at the approach taken by one scientists can illustrate how scientists approach questions.
applying scientific inquiry
Applying Scientific Inquiry
  • Observe- wells going dry
  • Question- was the new subdivision the cause
  • Experiment- by measuring the water table over time
  • Hypothesis-water table was recharged by spring runoff
  • Test hypothesis measuring water from mountain stream to river
  • Share results
slide10

Peer Review and Scientific Journals

  • Scientific journals differ from magazines because of peer review.
  • Several ideas have been advanced and disproved.
slide11

The Importance of Testing Ideas

  • Scientists need to be willing to ask questions and experiment.
  • Also, they need to be willing to change their minds about their hypothesis if the evidence they gather does not support it.
slide12

Scientific Theories and Laws

  • A theory is an explanation for observable events or facts for which no exception has been found.
  • Scientific laws are different from theories.
  • They are generalizations about how the natural world behaves under certain conditions.
slide13

Science and Society

Scientific Literacy: Whats the Big Deal?

  • Science has a lot of impact on your daily life.
  • Learning can be easier when you’re younger, and that’s part of the reason your parents turn to you for help with technological devices around your house.
  • The rate of technological development isn’t likely to slow down.
slide14

Scientist's Tools

  • Scientists use a variety of tools in their inquiries.
  • For example, computers, and satellites, are complex and may cost billions of dollars.
slide15

Tools to Study the Earth and Ocean

  • In geology, which is the scientific study to Earth’s structure, a simple rock hammer is an important tool.
  • In the laboratory, geologists may use a crusher to pulverize a specimen for chemical analysis.
  • Geologists also use laser range finders for measuring distance, clinometers, magnetometers, and gravimeters.
slide16

Tools to Study the Sky and Stars

  • In the scientific study of weather and climate, meteorology, scientists use a variety of instruments.
  • Astronomy is the scientific study of the universe.
slide17

Tools with Many Uses

  • Not all of the earth scientist’s tools were developed for purely scientific reasons.
  • Two tools in particular have revolutionized earth science: the computer and the satellite.
  • Like computers, satellites are useful to earth scientists in all fields.