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  1. Design of a process for fractionation of plant extracts

    United Arab Emirates University College of Engineering Department of Chemical Engineering Graduation Project (2) Group Members: BushraSaeed NeginSuhail Sara Rashad ShaimaHasan Project Advisor: Dr. Ali Al-Marzouqi December 31, 2008
  2. Outline Introduction Current technologies for Clove Oil Fractionation Thermodynamic and Physical Properties Project Design in a Commercial Scale Health, Safety and Environmental Regulations Economic Analysis and Business Plan
  3. Tasks Done on GPI Importance of the study Comparison between current technologies for clove oil fractionation Clove oil fractionation using SC-CO2 technique. Effect of parameters during the process. Material and energy balance on pilot scale Cost estimation on bench scale.
  4. Current technologies for clove oil fractionation No solvent residue Minimum oxidation/thermal degradation Environmentally Friendly Flexible process
  5. SC-Fluid region
  6. Clove Oil Clove oil uses: Medicine pharmaceutical Cosmetics Perfumery Food and several other industries
  7. Physical Properties Clove Oil Clove wax Lyderson Group Contribution method Lee-Kesler relation for acentric factor Edmister-Lee method Key’s rule for mixture properties
  8. Physical Properties
  9. Thermodynamic model Gibbs free energy is minimum The chemical potential of a specie must be the same in both phases The fugacity of every species must be the same in both phases
  10. Thermodynamic model
  11. Instrumentation
  12. Stainless Steel Family
  13. Austenitic Stainless Steel It is a steel that contains high percentages of certain alloying elements such as chromium (16-20%), nickel (7-13%) and manganese which are austenitic at room temperature and cannot be hardened by normal heat-treatment but strengthen significantly during cold working. It is also non-magnetic. Advantages: Good corrosion resistance and cryogenic toughness. Excellent formability and weldability Widely available
  14. Austenitic Stainless Steel Limitation : Work hardening can limit formability and machinabitiy Limited resistance to stress corrosion cracking
  15. Clove bud oil Demand The production rate of the clove bud oil is: The operational time per run is 10.5 hours, and the production rate for each run is: The yield of essential oil, 20.7%, is used to determine the industrial scale amount of clove bud used in the process by the following expression:
  16. Scaling up the lab measurements It is considered that the industrial scale unit should have the same performance as that of the laboratorial scale unit, if the following parameters are kept constant Particles size = 350µm Bed density (mass of particles per unity of column volume) The ratio between the mass of solid and the CO2 flow rate
  17. Material Balance Material balances are based on the fundamental of law of conservation of mass. The general equation for mass balance Assumption: Steady state process Well streams mixing Negligible any leaks or losses Non reactive system
  18. Extraction Vessel (V-101) Overall Material Balance 5 4 CO2
  19. Extraction Vessel (V-101) Component Material Balance 5 4 CO2
  20. 1st Separator (V-102) Overall Material Balance 6 8 V-102 7 Waxes
  21. 1st Separator (V-102) Component Material Balance 6 8 V-102 7 Waxes
  22. 2nd Separator (V-103) Overall Material Balance 10 12 V-103 11 Essential Oil
  23. 2nd Separator (V-103) Component Material Balance 10 12 V-103 11 Essential Oil
  24. Energy balance The balance between the energy intake and energy consumed is called the energy balance. The energy balance gives an indication of how much energy required for the system weather by removing or adding
  25. Assumptions
  26. Energy Balance
  27. Processing Fluid Processing Fluid Utility of Heat Exchanger R-717 CW
  28. Utility Flow Rate
  29. Heuristics of 1st Separator and Extraction Vessel Based on the available heuristics for process vessels, the following rules of thumb were used: Separator and Extraction vessel are vertical vessels. L/D is 2.5 with optimum at 3. The liquid hold-up time is 5 min based on ½ volume of vessel. The diameter of the 1st separator and extraction vessel was calculated by the following equations:
  30. Sizing of the 1st Separator and Extraction Vessel
  31. Sizing of the 2nd Separator u (Gas Velocity)= 0.0305 [913/30.984 – 1]0.5= 0.1627 m/s
  32. Sizing of the 2nd Separator Diameter was found from the following equation: D= 0.367 m H =2.5 D = 0.92 m
  33. Pipe sizing The outside diameter of each pipe was determined by applying the following equation: Where: ρ = Density of CO2 (kg/in3) D=Pipe diameter (in) u=Flow velocity (in/sec).
  34. Pipe Sizing The heuristics for piping is applied to determine the flow velocities. For the liquid at pump’s suction: For the liquid at pump’s discharge: For the gas phase flow:
  35. Pipe sizing The wall thickness of each pipe was calculated by the following equation: Where: t = Pressure design thickness (in) P =Internal design pressure (Ksi) D=Outside diameter of the pipe (in) E =Quality factor S =Basic allowable stresses of material (Ksi) Y=Coefficient value
  36. Pipe Sizing Results
  37. Heat Exchanger Sizing Based on the heat exchanger (H.E) heuristics , the five H.E were designed by determining the heat duty, heat transfer areas and the type of heat exchanger. The heat transfer area: Where: U : Heat transfer coefficient (W/m2oC), A : Heat transfer area (m2), F : Correction factor ΔTlm : log-mean temperature difference (oC). Q: Heat duty (W)
  38. Heat Exchanger The obtained results are as follows:
  39. Sizing of the reciprocating compressor
  40. Sizing of the rotary pump
  41. Health & Safety Considerations Safety: Freedom from danger, injury, or damage; security
  42. Health & Safety Considerations
  43. Health & Safety Considerations
  44. Carbon Dioxide
  45. Clove - Wax
  46. Clove – Essential Oil
  47. Hazard and Operability Study HAZOP study : A structured and systematic examination of a planned or existing process or operation in order to identify and evaluate problems that may represent risks to personnel or equipment, or prevent efficient operation.
  48. HAZOP Study
  49. HAZOP Study
  50. HAZOP Study on Storage TankLevel Deviation
  51. HAZOP Study on SeparatorsTemperature Deviation
  52. Economic Analysis
  53. Capital Cost of the plant Module Costing technique
  54. Capital Cost of the plant
  55. Capital Cost of the plant The Total Bare Module Cost CTM was calculated: To accommodate for the time index, (CEPCI) was used: CTM= 1.8 * ($ 2676793.13)= $ 3158615.8
  56. Cost of Manufacturing
  57. Cost of Manufacturing
  58. Additional Costs
  59. Cash flow analysis Breakeven point
  60. Conclusion In Conclusion: Based on research, Supercritical fluid extraction/fractionation method was chosen to be the most suitable technique to fractionate the clove bud essential oil Physical & thermodynamic properties of major constituents of clove bud extract were obtained & correlations were used to determine their solubility in CO2 solvent
  61. Conclusion Process flow diagram of the supercritical fluid extraction & fractionation was sketched Material & energy balances were done around each unit of the plant (PFD) Based on the required output work/duties in addition to available heuristics for each unit, the equipment were sized
  62. Conclusion The bench scale production rate was scaled up to the commercial scale production rate of 6.313 kg/h HAZOP study along with the operator health, safety & environment were discussed Capital cost of the plant was computed & found to be $ 3158615.8 (2001) COM of the clove bud oil was also calculated & found to be 36825220.99 $/year Cash flow analysis that was performed indicated that within 10 years of the plant’s life, the profit will starts in the 3rd year which is the breakeven point
  63. Recommendation The obtained data for fractionation of the clove bud oil and the extent of their separation was obtained through physical data & thermodynamic correlations, as a recommendation it would be best if the process was performed on a lab scale to obtain those data experimentally and have the results compared to those obtained through correlations to check how realistic the obtained results are.