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Community Health Program I CHP 200 COMMUNITY HEALTH Mohamed M. B. Alnoor
The Rise of Public Health Sanitary Reform: 1- Edwin Chadwick (1842) “Sanitary Condition of the Labouring Population of Great Britain” The Public Health Act of 1848 A General Board of Health was created • Legislation of acts to : • Control housing conditions • Establish sewerage systems • Proper water supplies • Provide for medical officers of health
The Rise of Public Health Sanitary Reform: 2- Waves of cholera 1831/32 - 48/49 - 53/54 • John Snow 1849 “ The mode of communication of cholera “ Snow stated : “ Diseases that are communicated from person to person are caused by some material which passes from the sick to the healthy, and which has the property of increasing and multiplying in the system of the person it attacks” • 1854 : Put theory to test : “Broad street Pump”
The Rise of Public Health Sanitary Reform: 3- William Budd: - same conclusion on typhoid fever ( 1839 – 1856) - Published a paper entitled “ On Intestinal fever ; its Mode of Propagation” - He blamed the excreta of the sick contaminating drinking water and the tainted hands of attendants of the sick.
The Rise of Public Health 4- State Boards of Health ( 1855 – 1873 ) 5- The American Public Health Association was launched in 1872. 6- National Board of Health 1879 : Yellow fever in the southern states.
The Rise of Public Health 7- Bacteriology : - Robert Koch ( 1843 – 1910 ) - Louis Pasteur ( 1822 – 1895 ) “Public Health then was nothing but sanitation and control of communicable disease ”
The Rise of Public Health • By 1910 : • Control of typhoid, cholera and diphtheria was progressing successfully. • The leading cause of death was. . . . . . . . . . . • New phase of Public Health : • . Education in personal hygiene • . Public health nurse : teaching “ good health practices ” • - 1911 : Need for local health departments : to bring good health knowledge to the people
The Rise of Public Health • 1912 : Need for trained personnel • MIT • Harvard ( Milton J. Rosenou ) • 1913 : Rockefeller Foundation • “ School of Public Health “USA & abroad • - 1919 : John Hopkins university “ School of Public Health and Research ” • 1923 : Reorganized Harvard School of Public Health.
The Rise of Public Health As Public Health gained maturity • life expectancy • infant mortality • maternal mortality • burden of communicable diseases
The Rise of Public Health Governments increased concern at all levels for the health of the people.
POPULATION MEDICINE • Disciplines that contribute to human healthand disease are classified into : • - Basic sciences • - Clinical sciences • - Population medicine
POPULATION MEDICINE in different settings and different times is referred to as : - hygiene - public health - preventive medicine - social medicine - community health - community medicine public health and preventive medicine preventive medicine social and
POPULATION MEDICINE Hygiene The science of health علم الصحة Includes all factors which contribute to healthful living “determinants of health”
POPULATION MEDICINE Public Healthالصحة العامة “Public Health Act “ of 1848 aims to : - protect people’s health - promote - restore
POPULATION MEDICINE Public Health “The art and science of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting health through environmental sanitation, control of communicable diseases, healtheducation, early diagnosis and preventive treatment of disease and organization of medical services to ensure every individual a standard of living adequate for maintenance of health and to enable every citizen to realize his birth rights of health and longevity”
POPULATION MEDICINE Preventive Medicine الطب الوقائى Developed as a branch of medicine, distinct from public health. It is applied to healthy people. Now it is similar to public health.
POPULATION MEDICINE Social Medicine الطب الاجتماعى First introduced at the same time as public health. This is to stress social factors as :determinants of health and disease - economic factors - education - occupation / employment - consanguinity - politics / administrative setup etc..
POPULATION MEDICINE Community Health صحة المجتمع This term has replaced public health, preventive medicine and social medicine. Community Medicine طب المجتمع This is a new comer. It is the successor of public health, preventive medicine, social medicine and community health.
POPULATION MEDICINE Community Medicine is the art and science of studying and assessment of community health needs, organization and provision of comprehensive health services and evaluationanddevelopmentof health care programs with the objectives of promotion of health and prevention of disease.
POPULATION MEDICINE Community Medicine Branches, Divisions, Components Health Education MCH Environmental health School health Occupational health Control of communicable disease Control of noncommunicable disease
POPULATION MEDICINE Community Medicine Branches, Divisions, Components Health service administration: - Planning - Implementation - Evaluation Demography Community nutrition Biostatistics Epidemiology
Community Medicine Public Health is the art and science of studying and assessment of community health needs, organization and provision of comprehensive health services and evaluationanddevelopmentof health care programs with the objectives of promotion of health and prevention of disease. “The art and science of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting health through environmental sanitation, control of communicable diseases, healtheducation, early diagnosis and preventive treatment of disease and organization of medical services to ensure every individual a standard of living adequate for maintenance of health and to enable every citizen to realize his birth rights of health and longevity”