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Human Hearing Time to read Chapter 6.1 and 6.2 of Berg & Stork PowerPoint Presentation
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Human Hearing Time to read Chapter 6.1 and 6.2 of Berg & Stork - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Human Hearing Time to read Chapter 6.1 and 6.2 of Berg & Stork
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  1. Human Hearing Time to read Chapter 6.1 and 6.2 of Berg & Stork

  2. 3.2 mm2 55 mm2

  3. Ossicles

  4. Pretty small …

  5. Uncoiled cochlea (schematic) limber stiffer http://www.howstuffworks.com/hearing1.htm

  6. Cross section of cochlea

  7. Two theories for the vibrations inside the cochlea

  8. inner hair cell outer hair cell

  9. Loss of OHCs: incomplete deafness and hearing aids

  10. From cochlea to the brain

  11. An animation may help: http://www.maxanim.com/physiology/Cochlear%20Structures/Cochlear%20Structures.htm

  12. length along basilar membrane

  13. Two frequencies f and 2f (one octave) 3.5 mm “same” interval corresponds to the same frequency ratio (fixed distance along the cochlea)

  14. Weber-Fletcher Law feels like the same interval

  15. overlap for frequencies differing by less than about 15% (minor third) sine wave excites about 1.2 mm of the basilar membrane

  16. excited hair cells distance along the basilar membrane sharpening The amount of sharpening determined the just noticeable difference in frequencies

  17. JND in pitch: 0.5% 2%

  18. frequency up and down by 0.001 = 0.1% frequency up and down by 0.005 = 0.5%

  19. Periodicity pitch and fundamental tracking (This is not Physics, it’s psychology) An overtone series like 2f, 3f, 4f, … which is missing the fundamental has a pitch equal to the f, 2f, 3f, 4f, … series (the brain “adds” the fundamental for the purpose of pitch determination 500 Hz + 750 Hz together, followed by the 250 Hz fundamental 900 Hz + 1200 Hz together, followed by the 300 Hz fundamental 700 Hz + 1050 Hz together, followed by the 350 Hz fundamental

  20. 500 Hz + 750 Hz has the same pitch as 250 Hz an octave above (x 2) BUT 750 Hz + 1000 Hz has the same pitch as 250 Hz an octave and a fifth above (x 3)

  21. note D note D minus fundamental note D minus fundamental and 2nd harmonic

  22. Aural harmonics sin(2p 50 t) sin(2p 50 t)+ 0.2 sin(2p 100 t) +0.1 sin(2p 150 t) +… extra frequencies “aural harmonics” 400Hz, 400Hz+802Hz, 400Hz+1202Hz

  23. 300Hz+400Hz, 300Hz+400Hz=700Hz, 702Hz, 300Hz+2 400Hz=1100Hz, 1102Hz rising fixed lowering

  24. Shepard tones

  25. Sound localization How do we know where the sound is coming from ? • interaural level differences (ILD) • interaural time differences (ITD) • head-related transfer function (HRTF) http://www.aip.org/pt/nov99/locsound.html

  26. Interaural level difference: one ear will be on the shadow cast by the head we can detect even 0.5 dB in ILD diffraction makes it ineffective at low frequencies

  27. 300 Hz: 2000 Hz:

  28. Interaural time difference: peaks and through will arrive at ears at different times t ~ L/v ~ (0.15 m)/(340m/s) ~ 0.0005 s difference in arrival time distance between ears much shorter than synaptic delays !

  29. Phase ambiguity: l/2=10 cm, f=340 m/s /0.2 m = 1700 Hz distance between ears

  30. Artificial sounds and recording including ILD and ITD give a sense of localization but with the source inside the head

  31. Head-related transfer function: includes the reflection, refraction and diffraction from ears, chest, head, …

  32. Recordings using the hrtf give the sensation of a source outside the head

  33. This really should be heard on earphones but …

  34. Aside: since we are talking about auditory illusions Tritone paradox: Are the tones going up or down ? What are they saying ?

  35. Precedence effect The source appears to be entirely on the direction of the first (direct or reflected) sound to arrive sound appears to come entirely from the blue speaker