Charles’ Law. Temperature Changes & Matter. Solids & Liquids expand and contract as temperature changes. Change is usually very small Gases show large volume changes with temperature changes. Jacques Charles. Balloonist
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Solids & Liquids expand and contract as temperature changes.
Change is usually very small
Gases show large volume changes with temperature changes
1787 did experiments showing how volume of gases depends on temperature
Pressure & amount are constant
At high temperature, the gas particles move faster and collide with the walls more often
Pressure is constant, so volume has to increase
Plot Volume vs C and you get a straight line
The relationship between Volume and C is linear
At 0 mL, the X-intercept is -273 C
Charles extrapolated his data to see the temperature at which the volume was 0
This was the first indication that the temperature -273 C might have a fundamental meaning
Why did Charles have to extrapolate his lines in this temperature range instead of taking data?
Get a straight line that passes through the origin
The relationship between the variables is direct
The volume of a gas
at constant pressure
varies directly with
its absolute temperature
Plot V vs Kelvin Temperature
Straight line that passes through the origin
V = kT or V = k
V1 = V2
Given any 3 variables, you can find the 4th
150 mL of a gas at constant pressure
Temperature increases from 20C to 40C
What is the new volume?
Step 1: Convert T1 and T2 to Kelvin scale.
Step 2: Rearrange equation:
V1 = V2 becomes V1T2 = V2
T1 T2 T1
Step 3: Substitute and solve:
150 mL X 313 K
= 160 mL