Charles’ Law

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# Charles’ Law - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Charles’ Law. Temperature Changes & Matter. Solids & Liquids expand and contract as temperature changes. Change is usually very small Gases show large volume changes with temperature changes. Jacques Charles. Balloonist

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Presentation Transcript
Temperature Changes & Matter

Solids & Liquids expand and contract as temperature changes.

Change is usually very small

Gases show large volume changes with temperature changes

Jacques Charles

Balloonist

1787 did experiments showing how volume of gases depends on temperature

Relationship between V and T

Pressure & amount are constant

At high temperature, the gas particles move faster and collide with the walls more often

Pressure is constant, so volume has to increase

Data for Volume-Temperature

Trial

Temperature (C)

Volume (mL)

1

10

100

2

50

114

3

100

132

4

200

167

5

300

202

Linear Relationship

Plot Volume vs C and you get a straight line

The relationship between Volume and C is linear

Charles extrapolated the graph to 0 volume.

At 0 mL, the X-intercept is -273 C

Hints of Kelvin scale

Charles extrapolated his data to see the temperature at which the volume was 0

This was the first indication that the temperature -273 C might have a fundamental meaning

Why did Charles have to extrapolate his lines in this temperature range instead of taking data?

Plot Volume vs. Kelvin Temp.

Get a straight line that passes through the origin

The relationship between the variables is direct

Charles’ Law: Verbal

The volume of a gas

at constant pressure

varies directly with

its absolute temperature

Charles’ Law: Graphically

Plot V vs Kelvin Temperature

Straight line that passes through the origin

V = kT or V = k

T

Charles’ Law: Problems

V1 = V2

T1

T2

Given any 3 variables, you can find the 4th

Problem 1

150 mL of a gas at constant pressure

Temperature increases from 20C to 40C

What is the new volume?

Step 1: Convert T1 and T2 to Kelvin scale.

Step 2: Rearrange equation:

V1 = V2 becomes V1T2 = V2

T1 T2 T1

Step 3: Substitute and solve:

150 mL X 313 K

293 K

= 160 mL

Balloons can expand & contract with the gas